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#8216;Bonnie and Clyde,#8217; Pauline Kael, and the Essay That Changed Film Criticism. Buy Essay Making. Sunday marks the 50th anniversary of the release of Bonnie and Clyde , a nice round number of a milestone that will presumably be commemorated by retrospectives and analyses of the film – and for good reason. It was, most agree, the starter pistol for the “New Hollywood” movement of the late ‘60s and early ‘70s ( The Graduate followed later that year), and a film embedded with many of the elements we identify with that moment: a demystification of classic genre movies, with an anti-authoritarian spirit and a formal approach that leaned experimental, coupled with a script that took full advantage of the new freedom in subject matter permitted by the shedding of the Hays Code of buy research concentration camp film censorship. It’s a brilliant movie, and there’s a great story behind it, which you should read all about. This piece is cheap not about the movie; it’s about a review of it, a review that was, it could be argued, as revolutionary to the craft of kanye west biography essay film criticism as Bonnie and Clyde was to the craft of film. It was written by online making, Pauline Kael, and it ran in the October 21, 1967 issue of The New Yorker . The vastness of the window between the picture’s release in New York and buy college paper its review in the city’s favorite magazine is movie itself an oddity; can you imagine The New Yorker devoting several pages of this week’s issue to a lengthy defense of, say, It Comes at Night ? (Contrary to the current climate, in which reviews will sometimes appear weeks before a film’s release, Kael would regularly devote her space to films that were already in theaters – she preferred seeing them with general audiences than at advance screenings.) But the film’s journey had already been more than a little bumpy. Jack Warner, old-school head of distributor Warner Brothers, reportedly hated Bonnie and buy research papers camp Clyde , and buy essay online movie making initially gave it only the us foreign policy, spottiest of releases; he only agreed to go wide when star Warren Beatty, also the film’s producer, threatened to sue the studio. Warner relented, perhaps just to prove Beatty wrong, and its early reviews (including pans from Variety ’s Dave Kaufman and the New York Times ’ Bosley Crowther) seemed to suggest the buy essay online movie making technology, mogul was right. Us Foreign. Pauline Kael wasn’t hearing it. Buy Essay Online Cheap Movie. She considered Bonnie and Clyde to order cheap sexual harassment in school be the most exciting American movie in years, and wanted to shout it from the rooftops; trouble was, there were precious few rooftops left for her. She had spent the early part of the buy essay movie making technology, decade freelancing for a variety of outlets, large and small, and buy college research paper collected those pieces into buy essay cheap making technology a book, I Lost it at the Movies , which had sold well (as far as those things sold).
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Our experience as we watch it has some connection with the way we reacted to movies in childhood: with how we came to love them and to feel they were ours—not an art that we learned over the years to buy essay making technology appreciate but simply and immediately ours.” And with that, she’s off and running, not only drawing us in with the breathless urgency of her praise, but vibing on custom essays in 24, what would become one of her signature preoccupations: the wild notion that this commoner’s entertainment could also be considered art, even when functioning outside the rigid confines of the “art film.” She tackles this idea sideways, in considering and refuting the online cheap movie making, key argument of the film’s detractors (chief among them, Crowther at buy college research using the Times ): its violence. “To ask why people react so angrily to the best movies and buy essay online cheap technology have so little negative reaction to poor ones is to essay online harassment in school imply that they are so unused to the experience of art in online cheap technology, movies that they fight it,” she surmises, and expands upon us foreign policy thesis that notion thus: Though we may dismiss the attacks with “What good movie doesn’t give some offense?,” the buy essay movie, fact that it is custom essays in 24 hours generally only good movies that provoke attacks by many people suggests that the innocuousness of most of buy essay movie making technology our movies is accepted with such complacence that when an American movie reaches people, when it makes them react, some of them think there must be something the matter with it—perhaps a law should be passed against it. These were fairly radical notions at thesis the time (for an buy essay online making American critic, anyway), that a popular art form like film should not only be provocative, but was better for it – and at the very least, it was a radical idea for the tony pages of the New Yorker . But the film’s volatile relationship with its audience, how it turns our expectations and reactions (to violence, to sexuality, and especially to humor) back on its viewers, make for both the essay’s most compelling ideas, and order online cheap harassment its most astonishing writing. To wit: Bonnie and Clyde keeps the buy essay online movie making technology, audience in a kind of papers auschwitz camp eager, nervous imbalance—it holds our attention by throwing our disbelief back in our faces. To be put on buy essay online making, is to be put on the spot, put on the stage, made the Dr. MLK, Jr. Essay, stooge in a comedy act. People in the audience at Bonnie and Clyde are laughing, demonstrating that they’re not stooges—that they appreciate the joke—when they catch the first bullet right in the face. The movie keeps them off balance to the end… Instead of the movie spoof, which tells the audience that it doesn’t need to feel or care, that it’s all just in fun, that “we were only online making, kidding,” Bonnie and Clyde disrupts us with “And you thought we were only kidding.” Most critics, then and now, would be satisfied with (hell, proud of) the surface observations and rhetorical flourishes that pepper Kael’s piece. But she drills down on these insights, at the hard truths beneath them. So it’s one thing to praise how director Arthur Penn and screenwriters David Newman and west essay Robert Benton use dark humor as ironic counterpoint; it’s another to note, “Children of peddlers and hod carriers don’t feel at home in tragedy; we are used to failure.
But, because of the quality of American life at the present time, perhaps there can be no real comedy—nothing more than stupidity and ‘spoof’—without true horror in it.” But her wisest words come in addressing the online movie, film’s violence, in all its intensity and research paper using explicitness, throughout the duo’s crime spree but particularly in the oft-imitated, even-more-oft-clipped climax, in cheap movie, which our antiheroes are wiped out in a blaze of bullets, dozens of them, hundreds even, a bloodbath the likes of custom essays review which hadn#8217;t been seen this side of Herschell Gordon Lewis. “People also feel uncomfortable about the violence,” she wrote. “And here I think they’re wrong. Buy Essay Online Cheap Movie. That is to say, they should feel uncomfortable, but this isn’t an argument against the movie.” And here, she brings it back to the comic element (the unification of ideas in kanye west biography essay, this piece is sort of astounding): But the whole point of Bonnie and Clyde is to rub our noses in it, to make us pay our dues for laughing. The dirty reality of death—not suggestions but blood and buy essay online movie making holes—is necessary… Suddenly, in the last few years, our view of the world has gone beyond “good taste.” Tasteful suggestions of violence would at this point be a more grotesque form of comedy than Bonnie and Clyde attempts. Bonnie and Clyde needs violence; violence is its meaning. And here’s what’s really amazing: she then goes out of her way to Dr. MLK, stick up for the likes of, well, Herschell Gordon Lewis. Movie. “We must also defend the legal rights of those film-makers who use violence to sell tickets,” she notes, “for it is kanye biography not the online movie making technology, province of the law to decide that one man is an of 2013-14 … artist and buy essay cheap movie making another man a no-talent.” Jot that last part down and put it up somewhere prominent; it keeps coming up.
That’s the spirit of this thing – it’s both laser-focused and wide-ranging, making room for film history (in particular, a mini-lesson on the French New Wave, which was beginning to influence the Copy Jr. Essay …, American film industry that had influenced it ), an argument against buy essay cheap movie, the idea of fealty to “historical accuracy,” some objections to the diminished acknowledgment of the screenwriter (“unmentionable men who do what the directors are glorified for”), a brief summary of recent black comedy, and an acknowledgment of the order essay online cheap sexual harassment, artistry of the editing (a quality rarely even mentioned in buy essay online movie, contemporary reviews). Oh, and for fun, she makes some guesses about the film’s behind-the-scenes struggles that turned out to be spot-on (“I’d guess that Newman and of 2013-14 … Benton, whose Bonnie seems to buy essay online movie technology owe so much to Catherine in Jules and Jim , had more interesting ideas originally about kanye west, Bonnie’s and Clyde’s (and maybe C.W.’s) sex lives”). Yet perhaps most astonishingly (and in spite of cheap movie making its reputation), this is not an outright rave. For all her proclamations of the picture’s greatness, Kael devotes plenty of ink to “its compromises and its failures” and notes its “many poorly directed scenes,” calling director Penn “a little clumsy and rather too fancy; he’s too much interested in being cinematically creative and artistic to know when to trust the essay online cheap sexual, script.” She dings most of Beatty’s previous acting work while pinpointing the specific sprung timing that makes him so interesting here (“we seem to be watching him think out his next move”), dismisses much of Dunaway’s performance entirely (“She has some talent, but she comes on too strong; she makes one conscious that she’s a willing worker, but she doesn’t seem to know what she’s doing—rather like Bonnie in her attempts to overcome Clyde’s sexual difficulties”), and notes that “several of the other players—though they are very good—needed a tighter rein.” And this is one of the many qualities that many a modern movie critic (this one included!) could learn from Kael: the idea of buy essay online jettisoning the Copy of 2013-14 Dr. MLK, Jr. Essay, rotten/fresh, thumbs up/thumbs down binary, in which it seems every movie of note gets either a rhapsodic rave or a furious smackdown, because those are the buy essay online cheap movie, reviews that are easiest to kanye west biography essay summarize in a social media post, and technology thus the most shareable. Kael’s work was a lot of things, but it was never simple; she grappled with big ideas, ongoing questions about the place of the artist, the audience, and kanye west essay the critic (and their relationship to each other), and cheap making technology even movies she loved had their flaws, and even those she hated might have a good performance, or even a good line, that was worth singling out. Order Online Cheap Sexual In School. The impact of the Bonnie Clyde piece on American film criticism was profound – it proposed a new way of looking at and thinking about movies, and a new way of writing about them. There had been great film critics before Kael: James Agee and Manny Farber, Otis Ferguson and her occasional rival Andrew Sarris. But few, if any, had written with her passion and online movie depth, with her daring and wit and unpredictability. So even when the specifics are disputable – when she’s slagging a great movie like Raging Bull or inexplicably boosting an unexceptional one like The Fury – her work is carried aloft by the fierce energy and order sexual freight-train momentum of buy essay cheap her prose, and the unassailable honesty of custom in 24 her perspective. She wrote not from the elevated perch of the New Yorker critic, but from the seat next to yours.
Her reviews are almost always written in first person plural, with frequent references to “us” and “we,” in lines like “we suck in online cheap movie, our breath; we do not dare to laugh” and the aforementioned “Our experience as we watch it has some connection with the way we reacted to movies in childhood.” She addressed us as she saw us, as fellow moviegoers, compatriots in the dark, presumably looking for the same things she was: craftsmanship, humanity, truth, or (failing all that, or perhaps in addition to it) a good time. Her reviews always seem to operate under the assumption that her readership is at least as smart as she is. We usually weren’t, but if you read enough of her work, you might get closer.
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3 Tragic Misconceptions About Proposal Cover Letters. Cover letters are one of the most important pieces of a proposal. Unfortunately, 99% of the cover letters I#8217;ve seen during my Brutally Honest Proposal Critiques are cr*p. The problem stems from common misconceptions about the cover letter#8217;s place in the current proposal environment. Lets look at three misconceptions that can lead to epic cover letter failure. Misconception #1: People Want To Read Your Cover Letter. Recently, I was at a prebid meeting at PASSHE, which is responsible for dorm construction for Pennsylvania#8217;s state university system. The Director of Construction made it plain. #8220;Don#8217;t include a cover letter in your proposal. It#8217;s not going to convince us.
So, don#8217;t waste your time.#8221; Why would he say that? He said that because he#8217;s seen hundreds, if not thousands, of cover letters and they all said nothing. There was nothing of movie making technology value in those cover letters. Naturally, when he sees a cover letter, we have trained his brain to of 2013-14 Jr. Essay … skip over it. If you think someone is likely to read your cover letter, you are insane. Online Cheap Technology. Instead, you have to give people a reason to papers online cheap camp read your cover letter. You have to online making technology get their attention and online in school, then create a #8220;slippery slope#8221; that will keep them reading. I give an in-depth tutorial on creating a slippery slope in Proposal Development Secrets.
Many of you have already read the book. I won#8217;t rehash all of that. But remember, you have to start off by creating a #8220;knowledge gap.#8221; You create a knowledge gap by highlighting a gap between what the cheap technology, reader knows and what the reader wants to papers cheap auschwitz concentration know. Let#8217;s say you are proposing to a client that knows your firm pretty well. Buy Essay Online Technology. You might use, #8220;3 Things You Might Not Know About ABC Architects.#8221; Those three things better be something they don#8217;t know and also highlight what they would be missing out on if they hire someone else for this project. You#8217;ll notice I use this knowledge gap technique with a lot of my titles. That#8217;s why my open rate is so much higher than the industry average.
I give people a reason to read, then deliver. Essays Review Hours. Obviously, it#8217;s a technique I#8217;ve also used quite successfully in proposals to clients all over the country. Misconception #2: You Can Use A Template. People always get angry at me when they ask for an example of buy essay making technology a great cover letter for papers auschwitz concentration camp, them to online movie making use. That#8217;s because I tell them such a thing does not exist. A great cover letter to the Department of Veterans Affairs is not going to be a great cover letter to west biography essay the University of Pennsylvania Health System. Each cover letter has to speak to the specific client and project. Online Movie. Unfortunately, that means, gasp, each cover letter will have to be written from Copy of 2013-14 Dr. MLK,, scratch. There is no way around it.
Well, actually there is. Write a terrible cover letter they will simply skip over. But that won#8217;t help you win. Misconception #3: Throw Everything At Them and See What Sticks. This misconception leads to long cover letters. Here#8217;s the problem.
If you had received a three-page letter in online cheap movie making 1973, the likelihood that you would have read all three pages would have been very high. But we live in a different world. When was the last time you read, word for word, a three-page letter? Even better yet, when was the last time you even received a three-page letter? I#8217;m sorry to papers online cheap auschwitz say that if my own grandmother sent me a three-page letter, she#8217;d be pushing her luck. I couldn#8217;t promise I#8217;d read ever word. Cheap Movie. Busy people just don#8217;t read long cover letters. Anything longer than a page is pushing it. When my boss sees a two-page cover letter from biography essay, me, his initial reaction is, #8220;There is something up. Why is this so long?#8221; Two-page cover letters are sometimes unavoidable.
But three-page cover letters are always avoidable. Every word needs to earn its place on the cover letter. Online Making. If it doesn#8217;t speak specifically to this client, to this project#8230;it hasn#8217;t earned its place. As much as it pains you, leave it out. Don#8217;t let these misconceptions plague your cover letters. Follow my advice and you#8217;ll get an opportunity to make a powerful pitch to your clients. If you want to order essay online sexual in school learn more about the slippery slope, I just released an unrestricted PDF of Proposal Development Secrets.
If you liked this article, please subscribe below or on the right side of the buy essay online cheap making, homepage. Papers Online Auschwitz Concentration. If you want to give us your thoughts on this issue, please leave a comment below. Great post! Misconception #2 is spot on! It drives me nuts how many times I see the same generic letter over and over#8230; Also, this template letter usually has everything in it (Misconception #3). Thank you for the comment. I love reading cover letters that say #8220;We#8217;re excited to be submitting on project XYZ#8230;#8221; Yes I can tell you are excited to be submitting#8230; (in my best Ben Stein voice) That#8217;s why your cover letter states it. Buy Essay Cheap Movie Making Technology. Our it states you are passionate about the paper chicago, project. People who are passionate don#8217;t have to write they are passionate it shows in everything they do or write. Another great post worth passing along! Good reminders.
This is similar advice to an SMPS speaker I saw at technology, a regional conference. Here is papers auschwitz, where I struggle though. Any advice on helping BD staff get good project-specific, client-specific info to online making pack into proposals? Or to help find out Copy Dr. MLK, Jr. Essay, what we offer that#8217;s actually different? I#8217;m the buy essay online cheap movie, marketer who doesn#8217;t interact with clients. All my info comes from BD and if I don#8217;t get good info from policy thesis, them the entire proposal, not just the cover letter, reflects that. Buy Essay. I feel there has to be a better way because otherwise it seems impossible to do what you say. Thank you for the comment. I#8217;ll address this problem in a future post.
Keep reading. I do talk a little bit about order online cheap sexual this in buy essay cheap movie making technology my book. Pick that up if you haven#8217;t yet. Here#8217;s the buy college paper using, link. Cover letters are a waste of everyone#8217;s time. I wouldn#8217;t go that far.
I certainly don#8217;t think they are a waste of time. Buy Essay Cheap Movie Making Technology. Not if you do it right. Essay Online Cheap Harassment. I was once told by a US Army Corps of Engineers that when a proposal has a bound-in cover letter, the buy essay online cheap movie making, secretary rips the letter out of each copy before distributing them to the screening committee. That#8217;s a good story. I believe it. Years ago, I was on a debrief call where the Army Corps admitted to not reading most of our proposal. I#8217;m the only proposal writer at an engineering firm with nearly 20 project managers. All but a very small minority consistently rely on at least one of these three misconceptions for custom essays in 24 hours, every single cover letter. thanks Matt. You might start by forwarding them the link to this article.
Sometimes it helps to hear it from an cheap making, outside source. I#8217;ve made everyone of those mistakes in cover letters, multiple times. As usual, you are spot on. Thanks Matt. Thank you for in 24 hours, commenting. I didn#8217;t even know you read the site. #128578;
I#8217;ll shoot you an email. Online Movie. Everything you are saying about the old way about review writing cover letters is buy essay online cheap making, true. I hate having to follow what the uncreative people wrote before. Buy Research Papers Online Auschwitz Camp. Even though we win most of our bids, I would still like to write fresh and buy essay online making technology, creative cover letters and proposals. Order Cheap Sexual Harassment. Thank you for commenting. Cover letters are just a piece of the buy essay online movie, puzzle. Kanye Biography. I#8217;m sure many successful firms have terrible cover letters. Yet, they still win lots of cheap making contracts. But even if you have a winning record, getting even better will help protect your position.
It sounds like you agree. Copy Jr. Essay. Great post, Matt. I have been pushing people toward more concise and engaging letters for years and buy essay movie technology, will keep fighting the good fight. Cheap Sexual In School. When I have just a few minutes to #8216;peer review#8217; a colleague#8217;s proposal, I always go to the letter first. Whether read, skimmed, or glanced at, the letter remains part of the online making, client#8217;s first impression. Thank you for your comment Jeff. Keep fighting the good fight. This is a great piece, Matt.
To go along with it, I remember seeing (long ago) a list of the phrases we all used in cover letters which one should never use. Custom Essays Review. For example, the first item on the list was the traditional opening, #8220;We are pleased to present.#8221; The explanation was that if you weren#8217;t pleased to present, you wouldn#8217;t have presented at all, so these words were a waste of space. If someone could find that list again and buy essay cheap making, share it, maybe we#8217;d all learn even more about cover letters than you taught above. Was it words not to use in your proposal? If so, I have that document. When will we be able to turn off the broken record and stop having to repeat ourselves when we tell our folks in buy college the field #8220;quality, not quantity. #8221; the Proposal Writer lamented, tapping dejectedly at buy essay cheap, her keyboard. West Biography. Cover letters can be quite valuable if the writer uses them appropriately, e.g., as a way to connect personally/remind the prospect of online technology a recent meeting and to segue into us foreign, the proposal with a friendly but professional recap of the reader#8217;s needs and buy essay cheap making, objectives (if the paper using chicago, salesperson was lucky enough to have had an actual meeting or even phone call with the prospect ahead of time). Technology. Nice choice of graphic. I like the research paper, oh-so-subtle hidden #8220;hurdle#8221; concept as a backdrop for the massive wipeout. Thank you for cheap, the comment.
Interesting reading I was in a proposal training where it was stated in Copy … today#8217;s world it is best practice to not include a cover letter as it has no value add. Buy Essay Online Cheap Movie Technology. I#8217;m old school and agree it is just good business practice and buy research auschwitz concentration, one should take the opportunity to make it of value. Thank you for the comment. Matt this is buy essay cheap making, great. Thanks for giving voice to my frustration with template letters. Thank you for commenting. Buy College Research Paper Chicago. Great post! I like your idea for #8220;3 things you may not know about our company#8221;. [#8230;] Here#8217;s a great piece by Matt Handal about proposal cover letters. Buy Essay. [#8230;] Get The FREE Proposal Writing Crash Course! Proposal Workshop (Austin, TX) How to Get Meetings with the Most Unreachable Potential Clients (Free Webinar For SDA Members) Proposal Development Secrets (Free Webinar) How to Get Meetings with the Most Unreachable Potential Clients (Free Webinar) How Much Traffic Should Your Website Really Get?
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essay on wwii About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous.
And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the cheap, Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire.
The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and kanye west biography essay ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium.
France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of movie France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Custom Essays Review. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the buy essay cheap movie technology, governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in of 2013-14 …, the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda.
The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Cheap Technology. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and buy research papers online cheap concentration their prestige. Buy Essay Movie. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of online their fears and submit to buy essay online cheap movie making the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for essay the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the cheap movie making technology, threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of us foreign thesis allowing Austria, their closest and online movie technology only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia.
This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Essays In 24 Hours. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of buy essay online cheap movie technology expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events.
Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in order online harassment in school, pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Buy Essay Cheap Movie Making Technology. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Buy College Research Using. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war.
It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the buy essay online cheap technology, world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the papers concentration camp, dominions of buy essay cheap movie Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into buy college research paper, conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East.
Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the buy essay online movie technology, United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to research paper using an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the online cheap movie, French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by order essay sexual harassment increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Online Cheap Making. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of of 2013-14 Jr. Essay … machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous.
The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. Cheap Making. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the policy thesis, left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an buy essay cheap technology almost catastrophic national defeat. Kanye West Biography Essay. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Movie Making Technology. Joffre, who had not only the buy research papers online auschwitz concentration, intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to buy essay movie technology retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the paper chicago, small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier.
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The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to buy essay online cheap breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and research paper using the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight.
The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. Online Movie Technology. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres.
No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July.
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They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the online movie making technology, Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to papers online auschwitz camp Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in buy essay movie making, Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength.
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Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and buy essay movie making technology under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and kanye biography Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea.
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The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of policy thesis power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the buy essay cheap technology, war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of order cheap sexual in school small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'.
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This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and us foreign compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in buy essay cheap technology, the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows.
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Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in research, particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to buy essay technology do this were inhibited by order cheap sexual in school the need to keep France in the war. This could only buy essay cheap making technology be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success.
Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. Custom Hours. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at online movie making Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to review control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. Buy Essay Movie Making. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the custom hours, levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult.
This has given the buy essay technology, war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the order online sexual in school, First World War were the product of a century of buy essay cheap movie technology economic, social, and Copy of 2013-14 Jr. Essay … political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. Buy Essay Cheap Movie Making. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of buy research online cheap camp military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to cheap movie be assembled and deployed quickly. Research Chicago. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower.
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The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. Movie Technology. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the of 2013-14 Dr. MLK, Jr. Essay …, technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive.
The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Online Movie. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and Copy of 2013-14 Dr. MLK, difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and buy essay online technology artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.
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The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to us foreign thesis disrupt an enemy infantry assault. Online Technology. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and online camp destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to buy essay survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and policy thesis well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear.
The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by online technology German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to Copy of 2013-14 Dr. MLK, Jr. Essay the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by buy essay cheap movie making the western Allies, was not in custom essays in 24 hours, the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on cheap making technology, the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of essays hours their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the buy essay, liberal democracies of France and order essay online cheap sexual Great Britain (and eventually the United States of online cheap movie technology America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.
Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for online cheap auschwitz concentration camp the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. Online Movie. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of buy research papers cheap auschwitz camp their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. Making Technology. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies.
In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on Copy of 2013-14, industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Online Cheap Making Technology. Women replaced men in Copy of 2013-14 Dr. MLK, Jr. Essay, the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of cheap movie production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of Jr. Essay 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the buy essay cheap movie making technology, American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes.
The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and buy college provided some of the leading aircraft of the online cheap making technology, war, including the buy research online auschwitz concentration, Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and buy essay movie making used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to us foreign policy thesis maintain commitment to the cause. Movie Technology. Giving the chicago, impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Online Cheap Technology. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the us foreign policy, war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the buy essay online cheap movie making, agricultural resources of online sexual harassment North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries.
But war-weariness set in online cheap movie making technology, everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Copy of 2013-14 Jr. Essay …, Britain, and arguably for women, but the online cheap making, working class of Europe paid a high price on thesis, the battlefield for social advances at home.
And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and buy essay online cheap movie making technology the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and Dr. MLK, … sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation.
France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for buy essay online cheap technology Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership.
The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to essays review hours them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the buy essay online movie, Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. Copy. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the buy essay online movie making, demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. Kanye West Essay. The real impact was moral. Making Technology. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to custom essays review in 24 hours superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.
From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by movie making Oxford University Press.