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oil price essay Essay on lubricating oils for BMW motorcycles, engine oils. Clicking on them at every visit helps support this website! Clicking on something inside an du bac advertisement helps even more! Understanding how oils REALLY work/operate/function.

IN DEPTH discussion. LUBRICATION THEORY . Buy Essay Cheap Charles Herreshoff. as you've never heard before! What things you should consider in selecting oils, etc. © Copyright 2007, 2014, 2016, 2017, R. Du Bac. Fleischer. Preface. The importance of proper engine oil: Most any engine oil will work reasonably well for the engine, but there are specific areas of the engine that WILL BE damaged, and perhaps expensively, if the oil is not of proper quality and that means proper additives that are blended by buy essay the oil makers. The author's website,, contains several long article on how oil really works, what oil should be used, ETC. Dissertation Du Bac De Franais. Certain specific ingredients in the engine oil are very much needed to avoid $$$ problems in your BMW Airhead motorcycle. THREE are critical. One of them is write my essay clover valley case ZDDP (or ZDP).

The amounts have been DEcreased, over Dissertation du bac time, in accordance with API, SAE, and oil and auto manufacturer's changes. Your Airhead motorcycle REQUIRES this substance in a minimum (and maximum) amount, to avoid $$ spalling and other deterioration of the camshaft and cam follower surfaces. Another ingredient is needed to be sure that under storage conditions, the cam and followers (and other items in the engine) do not have the oil dripping off and leaving the metal unprotected at engine startup. The final ingredient (of major importance) is online enviroment that the amount of detergents (Increasingly higher in modern car oils) should not be excessive, as that defeats BOTH long term storage metal protection AND defeats the protection of ZDDP. There are SEVERAL oil articles on Dissertation du bac de franais this website. Enviroment. They are generally in de franais, the section of articles 49 through 51D. You really DO need to read them ALL! Additives are put into base stock oils to help form better 'thin oil films', so the oil is not pounded-out by cheap write dairy case impact forces.

Actually, the Dissertation oil can also be 'moved out' by rotating forces, that make the oil set up like ocean waves. Areas especially in need might be such as the small ends of the rods, when at top-dead-center. Very LITTLE engine wear is from dynamic friction . that is, from rotating, or constantly shearing movements. MOST wear is from transient loads, such as at the cam lobes; with moderate wear on other areas, . during COLD STARTUP; provided that the oil contains proper additives. Regarding cam lobes, the Airhead engine is of the type that professionals describe as having adverse slide-to-roll ratios, and of high loading. Write A Formal Argumentative. These types of engines are common to those of flat-type cam/rocker/follower systems, such as on the old VW Beetle, the Porsche 356, early Corvette's, even the Ford Pinto. Owners of du bac, these types of vehicles are sometimes made aware of online cheap vs the enviroment, REAL engine failures ($$$) from du bac de franais wrong types of oils. In particular camshaft and buy essay online cheap herreshoff lifter wear. Today, modern car engines are so precisely designed and manufactured, that very light oils with no or limited ZDDP additives can be used (although other additives may be used, that do not interfere with catalytic converters). De Franais. NOT SO with MANY earler engines. The BMW Airheads are MEDIUM-old technology.

The BMW Classic K bikes (K1, K75, K100, K1100, and some into a formal essay, K1200) are somewhat more modern. Special notes, regarding modern CAR oils IN CARS! . and comparison with Airheads. 2. Oil compounding is becoming more critical with engines with controlled camshaft timing. 3. The use of NON-top-tier gasoline causes problems with fuel injectors, and carbon deposits that can, and will, produce driveability problems that are $$ to fix. For a list of distributors/refiners that sell Top Tier fuels, see: Click around at the headings at the top. 4. De Franais. More and more gasoline engines for cars are being manufactured with DIRECT cylinder fuel injection. This means the use of very high pressure pumps, often driven from How to Make an Effective lobes of the Dissertation du bac valves camshaft. Oil has become critical for buy essay charles, these engines. Further, the gasoline makeup and type of oil is MUCH more critical for deposits that affect driveability (surging, bucking, lousy start-up, poor cold running, lousy mileage. and more). It is DIFFICULT on many of these engines to clean-up the deposits. Chemicals may not work well, and $$$ disassembly and blasting with such as walnut shells, may be needed.

Removing and du bac replacing a head or two heads for this is NOT CHEAP. Use ONLY the brand, model, and grade, of How to Make Pet Poster, engine oil and Dissertation engine oil filter, that the car manufacturer has recommended. DO NOT DEVIATE, even if the buy essay vs the enviroment oil retailer or container says it meets the specifications by the car manufacturer. If the car manufacturer has nothing about your proposed oil in its APPROVED oil and filter literature, PASS on using it. or, study-up some, and then decide. NOTE that these two additives are NOT in all engine oils, and when they are, the concentrations vary . considerably!

ZDDP (zinc dialkyl-dithiophosphate) is a common anti-wear additive for use in mineral-based oils. IN THE ARTICLE THAT FOLLOWS, MY USE OF ZDDP CAN MEAN EITHER ZDDP OR ZDTP (AND THERE IS ANOTHER VERSION TOO), OR BOTH, OR ALL. Many premium motorcycle oils are produced with large percentages of synthetic components, and may well have quality additives that will last longer than the Dissertation du bac de franais commonly accepted (and often WRONG!) 3,000 mile change intervals. It depends CONSIDERABLY on the 'quality' and amount of additives, and write clover case particularly how the motorcycle is ridden . such as very short 3 mile trips in high humidity or cold weather perhaps . versus over 20 mile average trips. Changing your oil too often is also, contrary to du bac, popular belief, not a great idea. I know that sounds wrong . and the reasons are complex, so I won't get into them here. If you do not believe, me, do some of buy essay online cheap enviroment, your own research!

I will cite one SAE study, later in this long article, to Dissertation de franais, save you the trouble. There is also a POSSIBLE problem with the word synthetic. Due to a 'lawsuit' (not absolutely true, but best thought of as a lawsuit) won by Castrol (versus Mobil), a judge made a ruling (that even today should possibly be considered wrong, in MY opinion!). The judge ruled (my words here), that a highly refined petroleum oil, not REALLY a complete full-synthetic oil, can, if the manufacturer wished, be called synthetic. Because of this ruling, so-called part, or even full-synthetic oils, that are on the market may not truly be the highest quality REAL synthetic oils. Another problem is that there are several types of buy essay online cheap, base synthetic lubricants, and they are NOT all of the same quality or characteristics! I will get into them later in this article. I personally have no problem with this synthetic or not really synthetic argument, if the Dissertation du bac de franais resulting oil for write my essay, your engine was equivalent in Dissertation du bac, performance.

UNfortunately, they are NOT, usually, very close. Another problem is that, except for most of the specialty motorcycle oil makers (who are better at NOT changing good formulas), commonly available oils can have their formulas modified, without the buy essay cheap the economy oil makers telling you. The bottom-line, SIMPLIFIED, about du bac de franais, synthetic oil, is that for MOST PRACTICAL purposes, if they contain reasonable amounts of ZDDP or ZDTP (for your AIRHEAD bike or other vehicle that really should have it), they are ALL likely going to be OK and you CAN go further than you may think before needing an cheap charles oil change. Dissertation. Some will burn off faster at the beginning, and online irish that costs-you; but you will probably overlook this. What you MUST look out for is that the oils must be OK for du bac, YOUR particular motorcycle. Oil is much more critical for Airheads, as far as scuffing and lubrication goes. HOWEVER, FOR THE CLASSIC K BIKES, USE OF THE PROPER OIL, A FULL SYNTHETIC, IS VERY LIKELY TO GREATLY EXTEND THE LIFE OF THE STARTER MOTOR SPRAG CLUTCH, WHICH IS BURIED DEEP INTO THE ENGINE AREA, AND IS VERY COSTLY TO REPLACE (the labor alone is cheap $$$$). Modern car oils are typically energy saving (and so marketed and marked), are usually in du bac, thin grades such as 0W30 and 5W30, . and NO Energy Saving oil, of ANY viscosity, is fully compatible with your Airhead, and not all that good for your K bike either. More information is in my my article, particularly near the end, where I list ZDDP levels. From this point onwards in this article things will generally be more technical.

Here is write what really happens: The fluid (OIL) splits into layers. Dissertation De Franais. The top layer sticks to the surface, bottom layer sticks to cheap write dairy case, the lower surface, and each successive layer travels at a lower speed, which shears the layers on du bac either side. Oil film is what does the lubricating (not absolutely true on order online irish a REAL engineering basis, but good enough for us, here). There are several types of 'oil films'. De Franais. The hydrodynamic film is only perhaps 0.001 thick in us foreign policy thesis, a 1 inch bearing. Dissertation De Franais. Surfaces are kept apart by thesis several functions, one of which is the Dissertation de franais hydrostatic function which is primarily from oil pressure from the oil pump. Thus, ONE of the purposes of the oil pump is to provide the 'keep the surfaces apart oil pressure' inside the bearing, etc. This is buy essay the economy vs the critical when there are slow heavy loads and thusly for the starting up of the engine.

Please be sure to read this small paragraph again . oil slipperiness is not really involved! If you jump to the conclusion that poor oil pump pressure (or, same effect, from excessive bearing wear clearances) can cause problems . you would be correct. BMW is hardly the only company having starter motor clutch problems. The common Honda Gold Wing used what amounts to fat rollers or roller bearings if you wish, to de franais, provide a one-way clutch, and they have a habit of gumming up from Make an Effective oil residue varnishes, etc. An expensive repair job, sometimes fixed by using high detergent oils or additives for awhile. BMW K bike starter sprag clutch problems results in a high cost repair job, and the same high detergent additive routine may work here. Du Bac. The full-synthetic oils, particularly certain types, are quite good at preventing these costly repairs. Classification of types of how to argumentative, lubricating base oils: This particular section was plagiarized from Dissertation several combined internet articles, and then highly edited by me.

There is us foreign also a large amount of Dissertation, my own material here. Write. Since it is Dissertation de franais all intermingled, I claim NO copyright for this particular section. Further, I can't attribute to various authors either because of my extensive editing. The American Petroleum Institute (API) classifies base oils under five categories. How To Write Argumentative. These categories help identify base stocks in finished oil formulations to du bac de franais, ensure that engine oil performance demands are met. Group V: These specialized base oils, with few exceptions, are chemically engineered stocks that do not fall into any of the categories previously mentioned. Typical examples of my essay dairy, Group V stocks are esters, polyglycols and silicone. This group comprises all synthetic oils other than PAO's. A short list includes: Esters such as Polyolesters (Neopentyl Polyolesters, Diesters (Dibasic acid esters); various Alkylated Aromatics, PAG's (poly Glycol/various Glycol's), Silicones etc. This group of du bac de franais, synthetics is buy essay cheap charles primarily used for various industrial and aviation applications. Dissertation Du Bac De Franais. Polyolesters are most commonly used for turbine and aviation applications.

They are very thermally stable and ideally suited for very high temperature use. Hence their use in such things as high temperature greases, jet engines and gas turbines. They have a very low coefficient of friction and are sometimes added in small amounts to mineral oils and synthetic oils to lower the coefficient of friction of the buy essay cheap charles herreshoff finished product. Diesters are most commonly used in aviation and industrial compressor applications because of the du bac tremendous anti-scuffing protection they offer. They are often added in small amounts to PAO-based two-cycle oils as this feature is an Effective Pet Poster very beneficial to a two-cycle motor oil. Diesters are shear stable, have good lubricity, detergency and are polar. Dissertation Du Bac De Franais. meaning they have an electrical charge that causes them to online cheap charles, cling to metal surfaces. THAT is a desirable trait for most lubricants. Du Bac De Franais. Diesters are not compatible with all seal materials as they can cause excess swelling of an Effective Pet Poster, many common seal materials. Because of this they are often added in small amounts to Dissertation de franais, automotive PAO based oils to provide positive seal function. Silicones offer wide temperature performance and are sometimes used in compressor applications although this use has fallen out of buy essay online the economy, favor in recent years. More often it can be found in high performance automotive braking systems these days.

I HIGHLY suggest you do NOT use DOT5 silicone brake fluids. A discussion of why is in Dissertation, the brake and chemicals articles. Terms and words used in the petroleum industry, to which you possibly have been exposed-to, are not very descriptive to laypersons, and dairy I am going to mention some of these terms briefly here, and if you are interested in Dissertation de franais, a more in-depth discussion, simply do a search by any common search engine, such as Google's. Aromatics means the molecules are what is called Alkyl Benzenes. Naphthenes are Paraffins in a RING form of molecules. MOST synthetic oils are made by Polymerizing short chain alpha-olefin hydrocarbons, which then are changed to longer chain types called PAO's. These have molecules with vastly less variables than if made from crude oils directly. although chemically they are similar in many respects. Why Choose Synthetic Lubricants? One must be very cautious about using the various Group IV and V oils; they may not be compatible with seals in some vehicles, and as seals are usually made by irish more than one manufacturer, the seal material may not be necessarily compatible with an oil even though the seal has the SAME part number. Still, these are usually THE best performing oils. More. for the even more technically-minded, lots of nerdy stuff too . on de franais oil functioning . here I get into cheap write dairy, how lubrication really works, and lots more.

Looking at Dissertation du bac de franais extremely tiny irregularities in as-machined and broken-in surfaces, a LOW viscosity oil allows the How to Make Pet Poster oil to creep into very small microscopic areas. As the du bac de franais load increases, the oil is buy essay online squeezed between the parts and dynamically increases the oil viscosity; which allows higher load carrying. This is why a very thin oil can work so well in modern cars designed for it (including small clearances). This is why a 10W30 or a 5W30 or even 0W-30, all being very popular or SPECIFIED today for cars, works so well in modern cars (which don't have flat tappet designs, another story), and modern engines last so long (precise machining, proper selection of compatible materials, expert design for lubrication, improved oils, etc.). It is also, in an oblique way, the reason old Harley's had very thick oil specified. I'm NOT putting Harley down here, just telling real facts. Dissertation. One could say the same thing about buy essay the economy, many old engine designs. Du Bac. . and some of us foreign, this applies to flat tappet old performance cars, Porsche boxer engines, and so on (and Airheads) . as I described earlier herein. Oil wedging is a fundamental principle.

I will begin by discussing a rotating crankshaft; a crank journal, and a conrod big end. The spinning crankshaft does not have equal pressures all around any given bearing surface, as the pressures are not equal over its 360° rotation due to when the piston pushes (and pulls) on the rod. Dissertation. In the bearing area itself, the Make an Effective Pet Poster parts are ever-so-small eccentric to each other . or egg shaped, or however you want to visualize this within that tiny perhaps 0.001 bearing clearance. This clearance is NOT necessarily the MEASURED parts clearance, but the dynamic clearance . Dissertation Du Bac. more or less. Getting deeper into how thin oil films work (perhaps, in the molecular region) is way too nerdy for even this article. How To A Formal Essay. It would get into what is really meant by oiliness, adsorption, more on hydrodynamic lubrication, how the du bac de franais film can be penetrated, and so on. When I studied this sort of stuff, I kept my notes; and my industry information, and they, mostly typewritten on both sides of the paper, are inches thick. Lubrication is a VERY complex subject, AND . it is still evolving. I'll make it simpler from here on. (at least in THIS article).

So, what's this ZDDP stuff all about? ZDDP (or ZDTP) is important for BMW Airhead engines. ALL ZDDP is NOT the online charles same. Du Bac. Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate is both an antioxidant (you almost never hear about THAT) and an antiwear agent, and most formulations are somewhat volatile to online the economy vs the, a bit too volatile. As the oil standards specified by car makers and the SAE went from lower to higher letters (SG to SM, as example), the oils had less ZDDP. Du Bac De Franais. Newer standards reduced sulfated ash, phosphorous, sulfur, and, of course, zinc. The reduction in zinc was to keep $$$ catalytic converters from being contaminated . which reduces or eliminates their prime function.

The other reductions were to lengthen the lifetime for the Oxygen Sensors on modern cars and bikes. Think about what I just said about oxygen sensors. You DO know that your K1100, etc., has one? Yes, that means you do not want a high ZDDP level for K bike oils, but you need SOME on the earliest of the K bikes (1983-1986) due to their design, which was changed in policy thesis, a few areas, and Dissertation du bac de franais not really advertised as such for lubrication purpose. Order Essay Online. Thus, use of ZDDP and ZDTP in K bike oils is a trade-off.

I suggest medium-high levels for a very early Classic K bike. Most SM oils still contain some ZDDP, but in a less volatile formulation. Du Bac De Franais. This prolongs cat converter life, but still provides some anti-wear protection for engines with what is called high slide-to-roll ratios. So, just as a hint, if your SM oil does contain ZDDP, then it MIGHT be OK, contrary to even BMW recommendations . but you need to online irish in america, KNOW. Getting the information, which includes the ZDDP concentration, is very UNlikely to be from reading the Dissertation de franais container printing. Oil drain intervals, etc: I have mentioned how NOT changing oils TOO often is better . well, some, in total disbelief, have asked for proof of Snowbum's crazy ideas . So, I say, briefly: Oils, if properly filtered, can IMPROVE in some characteristics, as SOME miles pile up, and changing oil too often is online NOT a good idea.

One idea you might ponder upon (a tiny bit) is whether or not the oil manufacturers add too much of some additive, because they know it will be degraded over time and miles. Du Bac De Franais. For just one of a number of articles on cheap write valley case this subject: Obviously, there are limits. Viscosity improvers may be depleted too soon, if you extend oil changes too far. Dissertation. That means that 20W50 oil for your Airhead might be something else besides a 20W50, after enough miles. If you had a motorcycle with the how to argumentative GEARBOX being lubricated by the engine oil, things can be much worse for the oil, as the gears WILL shear the du bac longer-chain-molecules of the oil. Argumentative. This changes the viscosity, but also has not pleasant effects on Dissertation other oil qualities. Such bikes should have the oil changed more often, see your owner's booklet. Luckily, BMW Airheads and Classic K bikes have separate engine and us foreign gearbox oils. Dissertation De Franais. However, SOME oil shearing does occur on these bikes.

If you are going on longer rides, say over 40 miles in mild weather, and most of how to write argumentative essay, your riding is on such longer rides, and de franais seldom quite short ones, you can likely SAFELY EXTEND oil changes. In some instances even two years and 10,000 miles, but this would be about the write a formal argumentative essay LIMIT, under very best conditions, and Dissertation du bac would be for a Motorcycle specific, High Quality, FULL synthetic oil. For a high quality part-synthetic, such as Golden Spectro 4 in 20W50 or 10W40 grades, I advise changing oil at not over 1 year and 5000 miles, but SOME riders might be able to go a bit longer and to 8000. See article 51B. Multiweight (multi-grade) oils are now vastly better than old-time single weight oils, for a variety of reasons. Multiweight oils are typically manufactured using pour-point depressants to order online culture in america, THIN the Dissertation du bac base oil . so it flows and pumps easily when cold. They also add viscosity improvers to thicken the oil at higher temperatures. There are limits to this sort of thing, and online cheap charles it is tricky to make a quality oil that covers the SAE range of 10W50, and even 10W40, for DINO oils . and easier to do this type of du bac de franais, oil compounding with part-synthetics or full-synthetics . Buy Essay The Economy Vs The. which, naturally, cost more. Even back as little as.

1990, to get a good 10W40 oil was difficult (the standard was 10W30 for du bac, cars); today we have SOME 10W50 oils that are fairly good. NOTE that turbocharged cars often have very strict requirements for oil change intervals, and order online irish culture in america type of oils. Think about this . ask yourself WHY! Do you now see why the du bac use of proper oil and online cheap charles herreshoff change interval for Dissertation, an AIRHEAD, is charles important? Very Specific Oil Recommendations . COMMENTS . De Franais. For AIRHEADS:

General notes for the above section: Do NOT use cheap energy saving (so marked, and valley dairy case probably have starburst symbol) car oils in your motorcycle, particularly NOT in Dissertation de franais, Airheads. You CAN use them in an emergency. ***Fully synthetic oils may not allow your Airhead lifters (cam followers) to properly rotate!! I have NO direct experience! But, this bit of esoterica is policy thesis ONE of the three reasons I have NOT fully recommended full-synthetic oils for Dissertation du bac de franais, Airheads, unless conditions warrant. Buy Essay Online. I believe the oils I have recommended, above, are OK in this regard.

Classic K bike engine oil recommendations: This applies to K1, K75, K100, K1100, K1200. Use BMW premium oil filters in Dissertation du bac, your Airhead. Use the two-part hinged filter if you can. The K bike can safely use all sorts of filters, I use BMW branded ones, you don't have to on buy essay online herreshoff the K bikes. The K bike filter is upside down, so there is no need for a drain-back valve in its filter. NOTE: I do NOT like ANY FRAM oil filters. YES, there IS a reason to also NOT use K N AIR filters! ZINC. ZDDP.

ZDTP; 'special' break-in oils, etc. expanded section. Just what really is ZDDP. ETC. Yes, it is true, that that ZDDP has excellent anti-scuff properties. It was considerably later than ZDDP's introduction that it came into wide use for anti-scuffing. In the 1960s, high performance flat-tappet camshafts were common. It was found that a zinc level of 0.07% was very helpful.

Back in the 1960s, all new camshafts were generally phosphate-coated, and together with the ZDDP in Dissertation, the engine oil, the brand-new camshafts and lifters were protected from premature wear, particularly during the critical break-in period. How To An Effective Missing. As engines became more powerful, and pressures on parts increased, the level of de franais, zinc was increased to us foreign, 0.09%. Oils changed too, becoming much more complex, and additives for Dissertation, friction modifications, antioxidants, detergents, etc., became common and more sophisticated. Fuel economy began to be of my essay valley case, some concern, and the zinc content was continually increased, with premium and super-premium oils commonly having as much as 0.2% . into the 1980s and du bac de franais 1990s. ZDDP or ZDTP is also helpful for buy essay charles herreshoff, K bike engines, but particularly the very earliest ones, which had some places with different metallurgy, such as different cam characteristics, etc. FEW know about that, for du bac de franais, the K100.

ZDDP protects valve tips and pushrod tips. Anyplace where galling and scuffing problems can exist, ZDDP is usually quite beneficial. However, excessive amounts of ZDDP are not a good thing for such as a water-cooled BMW K bike engine, and thesis all the Airheads. It is not zinc, but phosphorus content that is the biggest item of Dissertation du bac, importance in ZDDP, as far as wear goes. The SAE has published a well-known chart (to for engineers) on the effect of differing loads versus phosphorus levels (there are other charts, zinc, etc. . not important right here). Most of these types of buy essay online, charts (there are a lot of them) are presented as lifter loads, in pounds, versus ZDDP or Phosphorus, and the criteria is scuffing of parts. What is interesting about the du bac charts is that the thesis curve is NOT linear, particularly so at LOWER concentrations of phosphorus.

At lower loadings, only a concentration of maybe 0.03% is du bac de franais needed. At higher loadings. which occurs with high lift cams or high pressures or both (easier to think of high performance engines) . concentrations of 0.08% are needed. What is needed means that MORE than that amount is required, due to buy essay the economy vs the enviroment, burn-off of the additives, and for a safety factor. Additives cost more than the de franais oil stock does. You can read into THAT quite a lot! You can also think about the fact that it takes ZINC to establish the proper glass layer from the us foreign policy thesis phosphorus (Phosphates), and ZINC is bad for cat converters . so oil mfrs make compromises, that are not necessarily good for your Airhead bike!

ZDDP amounts have been reduced every now and then in car engine oils, now ZDDP is almost completely eliminated. That is because the additive contaminated the $$$ catalytic converters. At the early stages of reductions, phosphorus limits were lowered to 0.10%, and zinc levels were dropped also . but quite long ago. In 2004 came the Dissertation du bac so-called Tier 2 emissions standards, and OEM warranties changed to 10 years or 100K miles, and phosphorus dropped again, to 0.08% . and write a formal essay zinc went down to 0.09%. The levels are much lower now . or, gone.

There is no question that, for newer generation car engines, modern oils are all that is needed. These oils and the more precise automated machining and improved metallurgy, various alloys, improved cooling, etc., are a big part of why car engines can last 250K+ miles these days. Du Bac. It is also the reason that high mileages can be obtained on the Classic K bike engines, which contain a lot of the newer technologies. Establishing protective layers or very hard layers, on cams and followers, is online charles dealt with by Dissertation many small changes in modern engines. Write A Formal Argumentative Essay. The result allows break-in of the cam and followers and other parts, when brand-new, without needing ZDDP. For most Airhead owners, that is hardly the problem, since their engine's parts were long-ago broken in, hopefully on ZDDP oils. BUT, the zinc (and phosphorus) are needed continuously in Airheads; and du bac if the cam, etc. , was NOT heat treated well-enough, or perhaps not broken in on cheap write my essay valley case a proper oil . deterioration will begin, sometimes rapidly, when using the wrong oil. I have PERSONALLY witnessed oil failures in this area of the Airhead engines.

High valve spring loads compound problems. Du Bac De Franais. In a nutshell, EPA regulations, SAE and write my essay clover engine makers and car makers have all 'conspired' against the type of Dissertation du bac, oil YOU NEED for How to an Effective Pet Poster, your Airhead. Luckily such oils are still available. There is some information on oils, with the du bac heading title of Information on acceptable engine oils: in this linked article: I suggest you either stop here read just that section in that article then resume here, or make a note to how to write a formal, read it after finishing this article, below. Some, particularly in racing or maybe just overly nerdy street vehicle owners who own old vehicles, may use a dedicated break-in oil with a ZDDP additive; they may also have used a coating on Dissertation de franais the cam, etc., during assembly, for extra protection at first start-up. I have been asked about this subject, so thought I would put the asked-for information here. A non-detergent break-in oil could be a straight 30W or a 10W30, you could add a ZDDP additive. You do not have to do that. Do you need, or should you use, these above super-special oils: Probably NOT. 800 or 900 is not nearly enough.

Transmission, driveshaft, rear drive oils: There is the economy enviroment ONE BRONZE, not brass, shim in the rear drives in the Airheads. BMW specified a GL5 oil. BMW knew what is du bac correct, and valley case I agree. GL5 NOT GL4! in ALL AIRHEADS. 800 cc total oil). If you have problems shifting, try it for Dissertation, a thousand miles or so, see if it helps.

If not, you have other problems. It may increase the lifetime for how to a formal essay, the bearings, etc. ABSOLUTELY DO NOT use the Dow M product with synthetic oils, and DO NOT increase the dose! For the rear drive, you can use about 2%. Here is de franais a link to an article about oils, especially for motorcycles, and it has some different, and thesis interesting, viewpoints. De Franais. It's a bit long, but worth the read, and you may well like the method of presenting the online cheap the economy vs the information. To all of you out Dissertation du bac de franais there reading this hugely long article: It is all YOUR choice. I have only tried to inform. Believe what you want. You will do that anyway. 01/25/2007: slight revisions and write my essay valley dairy case editing for clarity.

Remove poor formatting. 01/22/2008: edit slightly for clarity. 07/12/2008: minor clarifications. 07/14/2008: more clarifications. 02/27/2009: Added addendum #1, make minor corrections otherwise, in line with changes by SAE, etc. 03/09/2009: Final release, includes some changes in line with the latest oils available. 11/16/2009: Add last section.

01/21/2010: minor updates and clarifications; add script to code. 04/21/2010: Add to section on ZDDP. 06/18/2010: Updated airhead oil recommendations to du bac de franais, include caveat on Mobil 1 V-Twin oil; changed the commentary slightly for online, the Spectro GS4 20W50. 09/01/2010: added hyperlink to SAE article. 11/12/2010: slight updating, mostly for clarity and poor grammar. 11/18/2010: add ppm of zinc for 4T oil. 02/24/2011: was 52C. 04/10/2011: Fix K N article internal hyperlink and clean up entire article SOME. 08/03/2012: Get much deeper into synthetics, etc. 10/12/2012: revise layout; add QR code; add language code; update Google Ad-Sense code; update article contents; language button removed later on.

11/05/2013: Clean up article. still is messy. clarify a few details. 03/03/2014: Revise article for clarity; add Ph and Z info on Delo, etc. 07/16/2014: Minor additions, no revisions. 09/03/2014: Clarify some areas; do a further cleanup on du bac 09/07/2014 finish on 09/24/2014. 12/26/2014: Add lengthy note near top about modern car engines needed oils filters. Eliminate some font sizes, add minor notes corrections. 04/03/2015: Add simplified section. 05/01/2015: Update article. 03/10/2016: Update layout, eliminate duplications, update metacodes, format, clarify details. 09/25/2016: Update scripts, html, metacodes, slight changes in layout/fonts/etc. Improve details in section on transmission, rear drive, driveshaft oils.

05/31/2017: Reduce colors and fonts, minor text changes for clarity. Slight updates on How to Make an Effective Missing Pet Poster zddp amounts per du bac de franais, latest mfr information and us foreign policy thesis testing.

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Large screen Good memory, processor and ports to add accessories Long battery life. No touch screen, so not compatible with Windows 8 or newer. Looking for a laptop that can double as a tablet? Look no further than the du bac de franais, HP Pavilion 11. It’s a laptop when connected to online charles the attached keyboard, or separate it and use the touch screen like a tablet. The 11-inch screen is adequate for du bac de franais most kids’ needs, and at a little over 3 pounds, it’s a lightweight computer that’s highly portable. Good memory for the price Convertible 2 in 1 appeals to many kids. Low battery life, typically under 5 hours Not as sturdy as other recommended models for kids.

Best laptops for cheap write dairy case kids who love gaming. Is your child happiest when he’s online gaming with his buddies or finding the latest game to buy at Dissertation du bac the store? If so, then you’ll want to buy a laptop that can do double duty as both a functional school and the economy vs the homework tool and as a gaming station for playtime. Gaming laptops tend to de franais be pricier than functional-school-only types. Order Cheap Irish Culture In America. Games require more memory, and many gamers prefer more robust speakers and audio chips for Dissertation du bac de franais the ultimate in realism, as well as better optical cards and screens to better enjoy the gaming experience. Look for laptops with better optical cards and an extremely strong processor. Buy Essay Cheap. Both of these do cost more.

If you’re not as concerned with price as you are with finding a great laptop your older child or teen will love, then check out these laptops that are recommended for serious gaming. Acer Aspire laptops are generally a good line of Dissertation laptops for kids, and the Acer Aspire V3-571G is an Effective Pet Poster no different. It offers an Intel Core i5 processor, with a decent amount of RAM to de franais run games. It can easily accommodate additional RAM for cheap write my essay clover valley dairy more gaming power. One of the du bac de franais, most affordable laptops that can also handle games Decent graphics (though not great) Good for both play and school. Poor battery life – lasts only about 5 hours Memory good for only a few games (but you can easily add more) This particular Toshiba model was actually built to how to write a formal argumentative be an affordable gaming laptop, and it’s made from the inside out with gamers in mind. The AMD dual-core processor, memory and other features can run some good games. It also comes with an du bac de franais AMD Radeon HD graphics care and Windows 8, making it also suitable for school work. Bright screen with good clarity A lot of How to Make an Effective Missing Pet Poster computing power packed into one laptop. Pricier than other models Only runs Windows 8 and above, so older software you may have at home won’t be compatible.

Samsung Series 3 Gamer NP350V5C-T01US. The Samsung Series 3 Gamer, like the Toshiba, was built for Dissertation du bac de franais gaming. This one includes an Intel i7 Processor, making it a bit faster for gaming. Cheap. It also comes with the AMD Radeon HD Graphics Card, another plus for gaming. It’s often recommended for online gaming such as World of Warcraft, and du bac it can also handle other HD games. Other Samsung laptops are also good values.

Good value for the money Nice Intel i7 Processor Good memory. More expensive than most laptops for buy essay kids (over $600 in most stores) Average battery life. What to look for Dissertation when shopping for kids’ laptops. Because durability is a big consideration when shopping for kids’ laptops, it’s a good idea to at least test them out in person at a retail store. Check the case, the hinges, and the keyboards; how do they feel? CNET, a website dedicated to all things technology, recommends the “less is more” philosophy when purchasing a laptop. It’s sound advice, especially when buying laptops for kids. It’s tempting to go for the most computing power when shopping for a laptop, but technology changes so rapidly that investing in more than you need isn’t a good idea. Purchase just what your child needs for school, play or both, and expect to upgrade in a year or two when the newest advances in technology make the current laptop obsolete or incompatible with the latest innovations.

Design considerations are also paramount when choosing laptops for kids. Like durability, weight and thesis overall ease of use are important. Pick up the laptop; have your child pick it up. Is it lightweight enough that kids can carry it easily to school, a friend’s house or the library to do homework? If it’s heavy, they won’t want to carry it or use it much. Lastly, remember that cases may be sold separately for laptops. Look for Dissertation du bac durable cases that wipe clean of fingerprints and spills. Make sure that the laptop case you buy fits the laptop. Like laptops, cases are measured by the laptop’s screen size, so a case that’s marketed for cheap write clover valley a 17-inch laptop will fit one with a 17-inch screen, measured on the diagonal.

Most laptops come preloaded with at least the Dissertation du bac de franais, basic software. Some come with Microsoft Home or Student versions. Check before purchasing whether these are trial versions or fully licensed versions that come with the purchase price. If it’s a trial version, you’ll end up shelling out more money to unlock the full version when the trial expires. Internet browsers usually come pre-installed, and other trial software may come with your computer. Remember that you don’t need to buy all of the software that’s offered on trial. Make An Effective Pet Poster. You can always remove it later. A good virus protection program may come with your laptop, but you may want to explore additional virus protection software, especially if your child surfs the net frequently.

Make sure to remind your child to run their virus protection software or set up an automatic scan to protect your investment. Once you’ve seen various laptop models in person, you can do cost-comparisons and shop online. Make sure you write down the de franais, exact name of the laptop, including all the letters and numbers after the brand and model. The letters and numbers refer to Pet Poster the exact version of the laptop, and there can be more than a little variation between two that are only off by a few digits or letters. Amazon and other online retail outlets offer good bargains, reasonable shipping, and generous return policies if you buy the wrong one.

Shopping for a kid’s laptop is a little different than shopping for one for de franais an adult, but with a little preparation, time and patience, you can find an affordable model that your child will love.

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Corporate Social Responsibility: Strategic Implications. School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University Search for more papers by Dissertation du bac de franais, this author. Donald S. Siegel, Department of Economics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 3506 Russell Sage Laboratory, 110, 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180-3590, USA ( abstract We describe a variety of buy essay online cheap vs the, perspectives on corporate social responsibility (CSR), which we use to Dissertation de franais develop a framework for consideration of the strategic implications of CSR. Based on buy essay online cheap this framework, we propose an agenda for additional theoretical and empirical research on CSR. We then review the du bac de franais, papers in this special issue and buy essay, relate them to the proposed agenda. In recent years, scholars and managers have devoted greater attention to the strategic implications of corporate social responsibility (CSR).

Consistent with McWilliams and Siegel (2001), we define CSR as situations where the firm goes beyond compliance and engages in actions that appear to further some social good, beyond the du bac, interests of the firm and that which is required by law’. However, this is just one interpretation of CSR. Numerous definitions of CSR have been proposed and often no clear definition is given, making theoretical development and measurement difficult. CSR activities have been posited to include incorporating social characteristics or features into how to write essay products and de franais, manufacturing processes (e.g. The Economy? aerosol products with no fluorocarbons or using environmentally-friendly technologies), adopting progressive human resource management practices (e.g. promoting employee empowerment), achieving higher levels of environmental performance through recycling and pollution abatement (e.g. adopting an aggressive stance towards reducing emissions), and du bac, advancing the goals of community organizations (e.g. working closely with groups such as United Way). Us Foreign? [1] Researchers are moving beyond just defining and identifying CSR activities, to du bac examine the strategic role of CSR in organizations. Similarly, there is buy essay online charles herreshoff growing interest among managers in the antecedents and Dissertation du bac, consequences of CSR, especially for order essay online culture in america, executives at multi-national, multi-divisional companies. These corporate leaders are mindful of the fact that business norms and standards, regulatory frameworks, and stakeholder demand for CSR can vary substantially across nations, regions, and lines of business. They are also aware that their divisional managers are under constant pressure from employees, suppliers, community groups, NGOs, and government to increase their involvement in CSR. Unfortunately for both academicians and practitioners, the analysis of du bac, CSR is still embryonic, and thus theoretical frameworks, measurement, and order essay online culture in america, empirical methods have not yet been resolved.

Furthermore, this topic cannot be analysed through the lens of a single disciplinary perspective. Thus, it appears that CSR is fertile ground for theory development and empirical analysis such as takes place in the Journal of Management Studies . The purpose of Dissertation, this special issue is to How to an Effective Missing Pet Poster further the CSR research agenda by bringing together multiple perspectives. After issuing an open call for papers on the Academy of du bac, Management website and other venues, we received 32 manuscripts. Buy Essay Cheap The Economy? We reviewed these papers and selected several for presentation at a Special Issue Workshop at the University of Illinois at Chicago. De Franais? [2] Among the authors and discussants at the workshop were scholars from several academic disciplines (management, political science, accounting, marketing, and economics), many international contributors, and a high proportion of junior scholars. The papers presented at the workshop were critiqued by online cheap herreshoff, reviewers and participants and then reviewed again after the workshop. From these revised manuscripts, we selected the five best for publication in du bac the special issue. Several themes emerged from these studies: the relation between CSR and competitive advantage, the role of differences in online cheap charles institutional environments in framing stakeholder expectations regarding the propensity of firms to engage in CSR, a comparison of the social desirability of the strategic use of CSR versus coerced’ CSR, the role of Dissertation du bac de franais, economic, philosophical, and global corporate citizenship perspectives on CSR, and the evolution and influence of the academic literature on us foreign policy thesis CSR. The remainder of du bac de franais, this paper is buy essay online charles organized as follows. Dissertation Du Bac? In the next section, we discuss a variety of us foreign policy thesis, theories that shed light on the strategic implications of CSR.

Following that, we outline an agenda for theoretical and empirical research on Dissertation the strategic implications of CSR. We conclude with a brief review of each study in the special issue and its importance to our proposed research agenda. Numerous theories have been brought to online cheap culture in america bear on the subject of CSR. Dissertation De Franais? We summarize selected articles on theoretical perspectives in Table I. Theodore Levitt could be credited with setting the agenda for the debate about the social responsibility of business in his Harvard Business Review article The Dangers of Social Responsibility’, in which he cautions that government's job is not business, and How to Missing Pet Poster, business's job is not government’ (1958, p. Du Bac? 47). Online Charles Herreshoff? Milton Friedman (1970) expressed the same sentiment and added that the mere existence of CSR was a signal of an agency problem within the firm. An agency theory perspective implies that CSR is a misuse of de franais, corporate resources that would be better spent on valued-added internal projects or returned to shareholders. It also suggests that CSR is an executive perk, in the sense that managers use CSR to advance their careers or other personal agendas. R. Edward Freeman (1984), building on Chester Barnard's (1938) inducement-contribution’ framework, presented a more positive view of managers’ support of CSR. Freeman's stakeholder theory asserts that managers must satisfy a variety of constituents (e.g. workers, customers, suppliers, local community organizations) who can influence firm outcomes. According to this view, it is not sufficient for managers to focus exclusively on the needs of stockholders, or the owners of the corporation. Stakeholder theory implies that it can be beneficial for buy essay online cheap herreshoff, the firm to engage in certain CSR activities that non-financial stakeholders perceive to be important, because, absent this, these groups might withdraw their support for the firm.

Stakeholder theory was expanded by Donaldson and Preston (1995) who stressed the moral and Dissertation du bac, ethical dimensions of CSR, as well as the business case for engaging in such activity. Another perspective, stewardship theory (Donaldson and Davis, 1991) is based on the idea that there is a moral imperative for managers to cheap culture in america do the right thing’, without regard to how such decisions affect firm financial performance. Institutional theory and de franais, classical economic theory have also been applied to CSR in a paper by Jones (1995). The author concludes that companies involved in repeated transactions with stakeholders on the basis of trust and cooperation are motivated to thesis be honest, trustworthy, and Dissertation, ethical because the returns to such behaviour are high. Institutional approaches have also been used to analyse environmental social responsibility. More specifically, Jennings and Zandbergen (1995) analyse the role of institutions in shaping the write argumentative, consensus within a firm regarding the establishment of an du bac ecologically sustainable’ organization. Finally, a recent paper by Waldman et al. A Formal? (2004) applies strategic leadership theory to CSR. These authors conjecture that certain aspects of transformational leadership will be positively correlated with the Dissertation du bac, propensity of firms to engage in CSR and that these leaders will employ CSR activities strategically.

To the extent that firms engage in CSR strategically, this behaviour can be examined through the lens of the resource-based-view-of-the-firm (RBV). RBV, as introduced by Wernerfelt (1984) and refined by Barney (1991), borrows heavily from earlier research by Penrose (1959). [3] This theory presumes that firms are bundles of heterogeneous resources and capabilities that are imperfectly mobile across firms. Barney (1991) maintains that if these resources and how to argumentative essay, capabilities are valuable, rare, inimitable and non-substitutable, they can constitute a source of sustainable competitive advantage. The first theoretical paper to apply the RBV framework to corporate social responsibility was Hart (1995), who focused exclusively on environmental social responsibility. Hart asserted that, for Dissertation, certain types of firms, environmental social responsibility can constitute a resource or capability that leads to a sustained competitive advantage.

Russo and Fouts (1997) tested this theory empirically using firm-level data on environmental and accounting profitability and how to write a formal argumentative essay, found that firms with higher levels of environmental performance had superior financial performance, which they interpreted to be consistent with the RBV theory. Using the RBV framework, a more formal theory-of-the-firm model of profit-maximizing’ CSR was posited in McWilliams and Siegel (2001). These authors outlined a simple model in which two companies produce identical products, except that one firm adds an additional social’ attribute or feature to the product, which is valued by de franais, some consumers or, potentially, by other stakeholders. Write Clover Case? In this model, managers conduct a cost/benefit analysis to determine the level of resources to devote to CSR activities/attributes. That is, they assess the demand for CSR and also evaluate the Dissertation, cost of satisfying this demand. The theory of the firm perspective on CSR has several strategic implications. The first is that CSR can be an integral element of a firm's business and corporate-level differentiation strategies. Therefore, it should be considered as a form of strategic investment. An Effective Missing? Even when it is not directly tied to a product feature or production process, CSR can be viewed as a form of reputation building or maintenance. A second strategic implication of a theory of the Dissertation du bac, firm perspective is online cheap charles that one can apply the RBV logic to CSR, in the sense that it is Dissertation du bac possible to write clover dairy case generate a set of predictions regarding patterns of investment in Dissertation de franais CSR across firms and industries.

For example, we expect to observe a positive correlation between CSR and both RD and advertising (McWilliams and Siegel, 2000), an assertion that we will explain below. Write Clover? Expanding on this theory of the firm perspective, we can shed further light on the strategic implications of CSR. In particular, we wish to focus on issues relating to Dissertation du bac de franais industry evolution, market structure, firm dynamics, and the role of asymmetric information in the context of CSR. We first note that in the context of using CSR to differentiate products, it is policy important to distinguish between two types of product differentiation. The first is vertical differentiation which occurs when most consumers prefer one product to another. Dissertation Du Bac De Franais? Other things being equal, most consumers prefer a more fuel-efficient vehicle. In the context of CSR, such a situation could occur when it is clear in cheap the mind of du bac, consumers that the product with a CSR characteristic is cheap my essay dairy better than the product without such a characteristic.

For example, a hybrid’ version of a Honda Accord generates less pollution than a standard Honda Accord. Thus, it is clear to most consumers that the hybrid car is better than the standard model. Some consumers are willing to pay a price premium for the hybrid car, given that the social characteristic of less pollution is valuable’ to them. This type of differentiation can strengthen or maintain the reputation of the firm which adds value in addition to allowing the du bac, firm to meet a particular market demand (Fombrun and Shanley, 1990). In contrast, horizontal differentiation occurs when only some consumers prefer a particular product, but the preference is based on taste, rather than quality. Cheap Write Valley? For example, some consumers choose a particular vehicle because of the colour. This type of differentiation does not contribute to the reputation of the firm and does not allow the firm to charge a premium price. Horizontal differentiation also operates for different brands. For example, some consumers prefer Coke to Pepsi, while others have the opposite Dissertation, view. In contrast to online cheap the ease of Dissertation de franais, valuing CSR attributes, consumers often find it difficult to determine if a firm's internal operations meet their moral and political standards for social responsibility.

The level of asymmetric information regarding internal operations can be mediated by the firm itself or by activists. For instance, companies such as McDonalds, Motorola, and Nike publish annual reports on social responsibility. One can view this activity as a form of advertising, especially for write, more general types of CSR. Dissertation? While such reports may be useful, some consumers perceive this information as biased, since it is filtered through senior management. Fedderson and Gilligan (2001) assert that activists can play an important role in addressing this concern, by supplying consumers with information they can rely on buy essay charles herreshoff to choose socially responsible firms. The relationship between CSR and advertising is an interesting one, which bears further reflection. Several stylized facts relating to industry evolution and the nature of de franais, advertising are useful to essay irish consider. The first is Dissertation du bac that we expect levels of investment in CSR to be higher for established firms in a formal essay more mature industries, since the extent of production differentiation will be greater in such sectors and du bac, consumers will, in general, have more sophisticated tastes and knowledge regarding products and firms. It is clear that such companies are likely to derive greater benefits from the use of CSR for reputation enhancement/protection. A second point is that if some forms of CSR do indeed constitute advertising, then it is important to cheap write clover valley distinguish between persuasive CSR advertising and Dissertation de franais, informative CSR advertising. Persuasive CSR advertising attempts to positively influence consumer tastes for products with CSR attributes.

It follows that this type of advertising need not be firm-specific. Informative CSR advertising merely provides information about the CSR characteristics or CSR managerial practices of the firm. The Economy? Following Milgrom and Roberts (1986), one could also view a high level of CSR advertising (either persuasive on du bac de franais informative CSR advertising) as a signal of product or firm quality. Another critical issue concerns the nature of the market structure of the firm's industry. Online The Economy? A key conclusion of the McWilliams and Siegel (2001) paper was that, in equilibrium, firms that engage in CSR will earn the same rate of profit as firms that do not engage in CSR.

We refer to this finding as the neutrality result. Dissertation Du Bac? This finding was misinterpreted by Piga (2002) as implying that CSR can only occur in monopolistically competitive industries, since some oligopoly models of Make, vertically differentiated markets predict that (in equilibrium) firms selling the higher quality product (in our case, the firm that sells a good with a CSR characteristic) reap abnormal’ profits. A monopolistically competitive industry consists of numerous firms, some product differentiation, and relative free entry. Some examples of such sectors are restaurants and retail establishments. On the other hand, oligopolies are characterized by a consolidated industry structure, considerable entry barriers, and substantial product differentiation (e.g. autos, computers). We believe that the neutrality result holds under both oligopoly and monopolistic competition. This is implied for monopolistic competition because sectors with such a structure are characterized by both horizontal and vertical differentiation, a fragmented industry structure, and very low entry barriers. Under this scenario, it is impossible for Dissertation du bac, firms to use CSR to outperform rivals. Examples of firms in monopolistically competitive industries that engage in CSR include restaurants, hotels, companies selling organic produce, and different types of retail establishments. The neutrality result likely holds for monopolistic markets as well.

That is because, while some oligopoly models predict that firms producing a higher quality product earn abnormal’ returns, these findings hinge on the assumption that costs are constant and independent of quality. These assumptions were not invoked in the McWilliams and Siegel (2001) model. Us Foreign Policy Thesis? Furthermore, recent economic models of CSR (Baron, 2001; Fedderson and Gilligan, 2001) identify an du bac de franais important countervailing force on the ability of companies to engage in strategic CSR in oligopolistic industries: activists who target leading firms (e.g. the attack on Make Pet Poster Nike's Asian production). This countervailing force makes it difficult for oligopolistic firms to achieve a competitive advantage through the strategic use of CSR. The question of whether firms can use CSR to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage is Dissertation another important question. A paper by Reinhardt (1998) finds that a firm engaging in a CSR-based strategy can only generate an abnormal return if it can prevent competitors from imitating its strategy. In competitive markets this is unlikely, since CSR is highly transparent, with little causal ambiguity. Other theoretical studies (Dutta et al., 1995; Hoppe and Lehmann-Grube, 2001) show that any early mover advantages that might be gained by offering higher quality products (recall that CSR is modelled as a quality improvement’ in McWilliams and Siegel, 2001) are eroded when competitive strategies are observable.

However, CSR may be used in the context of political strategies that result in regulatory barriers to imitation. One such strategy would be for firms to buy essay online cheap herreshoff use government regulation to impose CSR on rivals who do not employ an appropriate technology, thus raising the costs of those rivals relative to the initiating firm. Dissertation? Marvel (1977) provided an example of this in the British textile industry in the early 1800s. Buy Essay Cheap? The first child labour law was passed in Dissertation Great Britain after the mill owners who employed modern technology banded together and lobbied for restrictions on child labour, which was used more by the older, smaller mills. McWilliams et al. (2002) applied the RBV framework to how to essay demonstrate how US firms can use political strategies based on CSR to raise regulatory barriers that prevent foreign competitors from using substitute (e.g. low labour cost) technology. This discussion focused primarily on understanding CSR from an du bac applied perspective. However, it begins to point to a broader and deeper set of research issues that have yet to be resolved. RESEARCH AGENDA ON THE STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS OF CSR. There are numerous unresolved theoretical and empirical issues relating to the strategic implications of clover, CSR.

These include defining CSR, identifying institutional differences in CSR across countries, determining the de franais, motivations for CSR, describing CSR strategies, modelling the effects of buy essay online cheap, CSR on the firm and stakeholder groups, determining the effects of leadership and corporate culture on CSR activity, assessing the Dissertation, effect of CSR on the firm and argumentative essay, stakeholder groups, measuring the demand for CSR, measuring the costs of CSR and Dissertation de franais, assessing the current knowledge base. Theoretical Issues To Be Resolved. As noted in our introduction, there is a no strong consensus on a definition for CSR. CSR has been used as a synonym for business ethics, defined as tantamount to corporate philanthropy, and considered strictly as relating to us foreign policy thesis environmental policy. CSR has also been confused with corporate social performance and corporate citizenship. The lack of consistency in the use of the term CSR makes it difficult to du bac de franais compare results across studies, hampering our ability to understand the implications of CSR activity. As other issues are resolved, we hope that they lead to the emergence of an agreed-upon definition of CSR.

Having a good definition of CSR, with a common terminology, would aid us in modelling the role of organizational culture and leadership in determining the importance of CSR within an organization. The Economy Vs The Enviroment? Researchers could analyse how changes in corporate control, particularly through merger or acquisition, affect the type and level of CSR activity within firms. Alternatively, changes in top management (CEO or team) might be examined to determine whether leadership style and characteristics are more important than corporate control/culture for predicting CSR activity. Understanding the Dissertation du bac, role of leadership could be extended to understanding the decision making process and how decisions about CSR activity are affected by demands from multiple stakeholders. Asymmetric information makes it difficult to study the buy essay charles, antecedents and consequences of CSR.

Managers may perceive that many external stakeholders view CSR activity more favourably if it is divorced from any discussion of the bottom line. With this in mind, managers may not reveal the more practical motivations (such as product promotion, labour cost control and reputation building) behind their CSR activities, especially in corporate publications such as annual reports. This lack of Dissertation du bac de franais, candid information has made it difficult to buy essay cheap charles distinguish and discuss the different motivations for CSR, which may be private or social. The use of CSR to Dissertation du bac de franais capture value is referred to as strategic CSR by Baron (2001) who points out that it is the motivation for the action that identifies socially, as opposed to privately, responsible action’. That is, if the motivation is to serve society, at the cost of profits, the action is socially responsible, but if the motivation is to serve the bottom line, then the action is buy essay online cheap enviroment privately responsible. For privately responsible actions, there may well be social benefits that exceed the cost of the action to Dissertation du bac the firm. However, this does not change the motivation, unless these social benefits are of value to managers. Order Online Irish Culture? For example, providing day care may lower the number of juvenile crimes in a community, but the firm might provide the day care only because it increases the Dissertation du bac de franais, availability of workers and lowers the cost of absenteeism. This is How to Missing Pet Poster reminiscent of the consideration of positive externalities associated with innovative activity. An externality is defined as the impact of an economic agent's actions on du bac de franais the well-being of a bystander. Pollution is a classic example of a negative externality, while innovation (whose benefits cannot be entirely appropriated by its creator) is a classic example of a positive externality.

While the private returns to innovation (or those that accrue to the company) may be high, the social returns to Make innovation (through the creation of new or improved products and processes) may be even greater. Dissertation De Franais? Researchers need to order online culture use more direct methods, such as interviews and surveys, to tease out’ less self-serving information about the motivations for CSR activity and improve the precision of measurement of the private and social returns to CSR. In addition to understanding the motivation for the provision of social benefits, we need to understand how the provision of these goods, through strategic CSR, affects society. An example of strategic CSR is when a firm links the Dissertation, provision of a public good to the sale of their (private) products (e.g. Cheap Write Dairy Case? eco-labelling). Bagnoli and du bac de franais, Watts (2003) model this behaviour and find that the propensity of firms to engage in strategic CSR depends on two factors: the intensity of competition in the market and the extent to which consumers are willing to pay a premium for social responsibility. Policy? The authors conclude that there is an du bac de franais inverse relation between intensity of competition and provision of CSR. That is, in more competitive markets, less of the public good will be provided through strategic CSR. Us Foreign? Conversely, in less competitive markets, more of the du bac, public good will be provided. This is how to a formal essay easy to du bac understand, since more competition results in lower margins and, therefore, less ability to provide additional (social) attributes or activity. Conversely, less competition leads to the potential for higher margins and more ability to provide additional attributes or activity.

An analysis of the provision of public goods by private firms is a welcome addition to the management literature on cheap my essay clover case CSR, which has been primarily concerned with answering the du bac, following question: do firms do well by doing good’? Showing that a firm does well by doing good is often referred to as making the business case for CSR. While understanding the order essay cheap irish culture, relation between firm performance and social performance is of primary importance in the management literature, a more thorough understanding of the CSR phenomenon requires that we take account of other stakeholders as well. Du Bac? These stakeholders include: customers, employees, governments, suppliers, taxpayers, community groups, and underrepresented groups. Our understanding of CSR should be extended to an examination of the strategic use of CSR activities. Fombrun and Shanley (1990) established that investing in CSR attributes and activities may be important elements of product differentiation and reputation building. McWilliams and Siegel (2001) suggest that CSR activities be included in strategy formulation and that the level of resources devoted to CSR be determined through cost/benefit analysis. Analysis of the strategic implications of CSR is hampered by cross-country/cultural differences in the institutions that regulate market activity, including business, labour and online irish in america, social agencies. Institutional differences lead to different expectations and different returns to activity.

For firms operating in multiple countries/cultures this complicates the process of determining which activities to engage in Dissertation de franais and how much to buy essay cheap invest. As the knowledge base of CSR develops world-wide, we will be better able to analyse and advise on CSR. In summary, the CSR literature suffers from definitional questions that limit the future research. Distinguishing among strategic CSR, altruistic CSR, and Dissertation du bac, even coerced CSR (e.g. Husted and De Jesus Salazar, 2006) constitutes a significant theoretical breakthrough. Buy Essay Cheap The Economy Vs The? However, until theory and research can adequately agree upon what, specifically, constitutes CSR, research will continue to provide a lack of Dissertation de franais, consistent results.

It is to vs the enviroment this empirical research that we next turn our attention. Problems with measurement of the costs and benefits of CSR activities continue to cloud our understanding of the strategic implications of CSR. A major impediment to empirical research is the continuing confusion over definition that we mentioned above. De Franais? It is impossible to measure what we cannot define and, as long as we use different definitions, we will get empirical results that cannot reliably be compared. An Effective Pet Poster? Table II presents selected empirical studies of CSR. Most of these papers focus on the relation between CSR and firm performance. Early studies used either the event study methodology (which is based on du bac analysis of short-run changes in stock prices as a proxy for firm performance in the aftermath of a CSR-related event) or regression analysis (which uses an accounting measure of profitability, such as return on assets, as the dependent variable in us foreign policy thesis a regression model that explains’ firm performance). These studies usually attempted to du bac de franais answer the question: do firms do well by doing good? The reported results have ranged from showing a negative relation between CSR and firm performance, to showing no relation, to showing a positive relation (e.g. the results of a formal argumentative, divesting from South Africa shown in Table II). Dissertation Du Bac? There is little consistency in these findings.

This may be a result of inconsistency in defining CSR, inconsistency in defining firm performance, inconsistency in samples, imprecision and herreshoff, inconsistency in research design, misspecification of models, changes over du bac de franais, time, or some more fundamental variance in the samples that are being analysed. McWilliams and Siegel (1997) critiqued the us foreign policy thesis, use of the event study methodology to measure the consequences of CSR. De Franais? The authors reported that the findings of event studies of CSR appearing in top management journals were unreliable, due to serious flaws in the research design and write argumentative essay, implementation of the event study methodology (see also McWilliams et al., 1999). They also cautioned that the du bac de franais, use of us foreign policy, stock price as a metric for performance is not appropriate for studying CSR. That is because CSR is a firm level measure and many socially responsibility activities occur at the plant level or the product level. Another concern is that an analysis of de franais, stock price effects only relates to financial stakeholders and it is clear that non-financial stakeholders are also affected by CSR activities. McWilliams and order essay online cheap irish culture in america, Siegel (2000) challenged the conventional regression model used to assess the relationship between corporate social performance (CSP), which is often used as a synonym for CSR, and firm performance. They noted that the typical regression equation estimated was misspecified because it did not include two key variables: the level of RD spending and advertising expenditure. Both of Dissertation de franais, these variables have been shown to be determinants of firm performance and, because all three (RD, advertising, and CSP) are elements of buy essay herreshoff, a differentiation strategy, they hypothesized that RD and advertising would be correlated with a measure of CSP. The results of de franais, McWilliams and Siegel's estimation of the correctly-specified, expanded equation demonstrated that the three explanatory variables were correlated. Make An Effective Missing Pet Poster? Thus, the model that excluded RD and du bac, advertising variables was misspecified.

Most notably, they showed that when RD and advertising were included in the model, CSP was not a significant determinant of firm performance, as had been reported in several widely-cited studies. Consistent with Baron's (2001) distinction between altruistic CSR and Make an Effective Missing, strategic CSR, Hillman and Dissertation du bac de franais, Keim (2001) conjecture that empirical tests of the relation between CSR and firm performance should disaggregate CSR activities into those that are strategic (stakeholder management) and those that are altruistic (social issue participation). Make Missing Pet Poster? Based on estimation of du bac, a disaggregated model, they report that there is a positive relation between firm performance (measured using market value added) and strategic CSR and a negative relation between altruistic CSR and firm performance. McWilliams and a formal argumentative, Siegel (2001) provide a framework for analysing CSR within the context of the theory of the firm. Based on this framework, they develop hypotheses regarding the provision of CSR attributes across industries and de franais, market structures. They hypothesize that the provision of CSR will depend on RD spending, advertising intensity, the extent of product differentiation, the percentage of government sales, consumer income, the tightness of the labour market, and the stage of the industry life cycle’ (2001, p. 125). All of these should be tested empirically to see if the results support the hypotheses. McWilliams and Siegel conclude that there is some level of CSR that will maximize profits while satisfying the order online culture, demand for CSR from multiple stakeholders. The ideal level of CSR can be determined by cost-benefit analysis’ (2001, p. 125). While costs of providing CSR attributes may be easy for managers to determine, consumer demand (benefit) may not be. Consumer demand for CSR could be difficult to du bac measure because CSR attributes are among many attributes of a product.

For example, a particular shampoo may have the CSR attribute that it is not tested on animals’. Us Foreign Thesis? But, it also has a particular scent, colour, consistency, and package. This makes it difficult to separate out the demand for the CSR attribute. A method for assessing how much consumers are willing to pay for a given product characteristic or feature is hedonic pricing. Hedonic pricing involves using data on actual purchases, in order to determine the implicit price’ of a particular attribute. For example, new homes have many attributes, one of which might be central air conditioning. Dissertation Du Bac De Franais? Examining a large number of new home sales, with and without central air conditioning, but holding other attributes constant, it would be possible to order online culture in america determine how much consumers are willing to pay for Dissertation du bac, the central air conditioning. Similarly, to determine the demand’ for online cheap, not tested on animals’, researchers can compare sale data on many shampoos, with and Dissertation du bac, without the CSR attribute and can determine how much consumers will pay for that attribute.

This information could then be used in a cost/benefit analysis of the Make an Effective Missing Pet Poster, CSR attribute. To illustrate, we return to the example of hybrid cars, which are highly fuel efficient. Given the high price of gasoline, it is clear that some consumers will be attracted to these automobiles because they want to save money on fuel. Others may choose to purchase a Honda hybrid, as opposed to GM hybrid, because Honda has a superior reputation for quality. Still others are willing to du bac pay a price premium for the hybrid car, strictly because the social characteristic of buy essay online charles, less pollution is valuable’ to them. The beauty of the hedonic method is de franais that it allows us tease out the value to the consumer of online cheap charles herreshoff, each of de franais, these three factors (fuel efficiency, quality differential, and the social characteristic of less pollution). The hedonic method is based on the notion that the (logarithm of the) price of a good or service is related to its characteristics or features as follows: where #x25b; is a random error term and Z is a vector of k characteristics or attributes. These attributes are typically sources of private satisfaction, such as the speed of a computer or the horsepower of an auto engine. The researcher typically estimates a regression, in order to determine the values of the β coefficients.

The β coefficients provide estimates of how much customers are willing to pay for us foreign thesis, a given attribute. Some characteristics may also have social dimensions, such as aerosol products with no fluorocarbons or environmentally-friendly lighting. A major advantage of hedonics, relative to Dissertation other methods (e.g. focus groups), is write my essay clover valley dairy case that it is based on observed, not hypothetical data. Hedonics have been used by government agencies and other researchers to Dissertation du bac de franais price’ individual attributes of computers, autos, housing, land, and dowries. They are also increasingly being used for more abstract non-market environmental goods’, such as views, clean air, and Missing Pet Poster, open space. These estimates can have important managerial and policy implications, since they help managers estimate demand for social characteristics and can also be used in national price/cost of living statistics.

The theoretical and empirical issues discussed above provide an important foundation for understanding the contributions of the articles in this special issue. These papers shed light on the definitional issues that plague this research, and demonstrate, both theoretically and du bac, empirically, how making clear, specific definitions can result in deeper understanding and guide more rigorous research in CSR. The article by Alfie Marcus and Marc Anderson (2006) poses an policy thesis interesting research question, especially in de franais light of our previous discussion of the strategic implications of CSR. The authors ask whether a firm's dynamic capability’ influences its competence in CSR. To address this question, they provide a novel and interesting application of the RBV framework to the case of CSR.

In the theoretical section of the paper, the authors make two important points. The first is that they distinguish between business and policy, social competencies. They also consider a general dynamic capability’, a term coined by Ghemawat (2001), which describes such activities as enhancing the Dissertation du bac, absorptive capacity of the cheap write valley case, firm, benchmarking, and experimentation. The authors examine their research question using a detailed firm-level survey in the US retail food industry. Du Bac? Specifically, they surveyed 806 grocery stores/chains with operations in North America as of 1997. The results indicate that a general dynamic capability has a positive influence on policy thesis a firm's competence in supply chain management, which is a key business competence in this industry. However, a general dynamic capability does not appear to have any influence on a firm's competence in environmental management, which is a key social’ competence in this industry. The authors conclude that their findings suggest that the factors driving competitive advantage are different than those that influence CSR. Jonathan Doh and Terrence Guay (2006) assess the role of differences in the institutional environments of Europe and the USA in explaining expectations regarding the de franais, propensity of firms to be socially responsible. How To A Formal Argumentative Essay? As such, the paper is an interesting synthesis of neo-institutional and Dissertation de franais, stakeholder theory. It is a qualitative analysis, consisting of three case studies.

Specifically, the the economy vs the enviroment, authors assess the roles that US and European non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played in Dissertation de franais influencing CSR policies in three areas: the trade and buy essay cheap enviroment, regulation of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs), pharmaceutical pricing and Dissertation du bac de franais, distribution policies, and international environmental agreements such as the online cheap charles herreshoff, Kyoto Protocol Treaty. The case studies reveal the role of institutional differences in these two regions in influencing government policy, corporate strategy and NGO activism related to Dissertation du bac de franais CSR. Specifically, the us foreign policy, authors find that these factors play an important role in determining how CSR is Dissertation de franais perceived and implemented in online charles the USA and Europe. A key implication of the Doh and Guay study is that any cross-country comparison of the propensity of firms to Dissertation engage in buy essay cheap charles herreshoff CSR should take into de franais account these institutional differences. In the next article, Bryan Husted and Jos de Jesus Salazar pose another interesting research question: is it better for firms to act strategically with respect to buy essay online vs the enviroment CSR than to be coerced into making such investments? More generally, the authors analyse the conditions under which firms can maximize profit and enhance social performance. As such, they take the theory of the firm perspective on CSR seriously, since they conduct a cost/benefit analysis of social responsibility. This technique was proposed by McWilliams and Siegel (2001). Husted and De Jesus Salazar model this cost/benefit analysis under three scenarios concerning the firm's desire to engage in CSR: altruism, coerced egoism’, and the strategic use of CSR. Altruism describes the case when firms sincerely want to be socially responsible, without regard to how such activities affect the bottom line. Coerced egoism occurs when firms act in a socially responsible manner only when they are compelled by regulation (and other factors) to do so.

The strategic use of CSR is defined as instances where there are clear benefits to the firm for engaging in CSR. The authors employ standard microeconomic analysis to determine the optimal level of social output that results under each of de franais, these cases. Buy Essay Charles Herreshoff? They demonstrate that both society and du bac, firms are better off when firms use CSR strategically than when they are coerced into making such investments. Write A Formal Argumentative? This is du bac de franais a conclusion that would make Adam Smith smile. In the next paper, Duane Windsor (2006) examines different perspectives on CSR. Policy? As noted earlier, CSR is still an embryonic concept in the academic literature. Windsor's essay is a tour-de-force on the evolution on du bac de franais three opposing perspectives on CSR: economic, philosophical, and global corporate citizenship. As he defines it, the economic viewpoint focuses on the firm's ability to use CSR as a tool to create wealth, implies minimal government intervention to promote CSR, and buy essay online cheap the economy, advocates that the firm adopt prevailing business ethics. Du Bac? On the other hand, the philosophical perspective results in moral reflection on CSR and should lead to higher levels of CSR and other forms of online cheap vs the, altruism. He also notes that this view supports active government intervention to promote CSR, as well as policy initiatives that strengthen stakeholder rights.

The global corporate citizenship perspective seems to fall somewhere in de franais between the economic and philosophical views, although this perspective can be used instrumentally to enhance market opportunities and the firm's moral reputation. The author concludes by discussing the implications of us foreign policy, each of these perspectives for du bac de franais, CSR scholarship. This special issue concludes with an article by Andy Lockett, Jeremy Moon, and Wayne Visser (2006), which assesses the status of CSR research in the management literature. Specifically, they assess the focus and nature of CSR research and the use of the accumulated knowledge in management and related fields. The authors also attempt to determine the buy essay cheap charles, key intellectual influences on the field of CSR and whether CSR research has a dominant paradigm. Their empirical analysis is based on data on CSR-related publications and citation analysis over the period 19922002.

The authors identified CSR-related articles in the following journals: Academy of Management Journal , Academy of Dissertation de franais, Management Review , Administrative Science Quarterly , Journal of Management , Organization Science , Strategic Management Journal , Journal of How to Make Pet Poster, Management Studies , Harvard Business Review , Sloan Management Review , and California Management Review . They analysed both the articles cited in Dissertation du bac these CSR-related papers and the citations that CSR-related articles generated in other journals. They found that the field’ is in a continuing state of case, emergence’, a term coined by Thomas Kuhn (1962). That is, based on its overall profile in these leading management journals and the citations these articles generate, CSR lacks a dominant paradigm. This is an obvious call to action for concerned researchers. It is du bac de franais this state of emergence that we hope to advance with this special issue.

The papers here exemplify the variety of perspectives that have been brought to bear on CSR. Cheap My Essay Dairy? They also demonstrate an increasing ability to du bac clearly define the construct of CSR (albeit not necessarily all agreeing on the definition) and build strong theoretical arguments and high-quality empirical studies that will provide an How to Missing effective springboard for future research in du bac CSR. We thank participants at the April 2004 University of Illinois at essay online irish culture in america, Chicago/International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility Workshop on Corporate Social Responsibility, Ann Buchholtz, Steve Floyd, Mark Shanley, and Mike Wright for their insightful comments on a previous version of this paper. The second author also gratefully acknowledges financial support from the School of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Lally School of Management and Technology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. For the benefit of non-US readers, the United Way is a global network of non-profit, philanthropic organizations. In the USA, many employees (especially those working for large organizations) donate a small fraction of their salaries to United Way, which is then distributed to a specific charity (or charities) that is part of the network. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the College of Business Administration at the University of Dissertation du bac, Illinois at policy, Chicago and the International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility (ICCSR) at the University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom. See Kor and Dissertation, Mahoney (2004), Lockett and Pet Poster, Thompson (2004), and Rugman and de franais, Verbeke (2004) for an excellent series of online the economy vs the enviroment, articles on Edith Penrose and the resource-based view of du bac de franais, strategic management. Issue online: 10 January 2006 Version of record online: 10 January 2006.

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Private politics, corporate social responsibility and integrated strategy . Journal of Economics and Dissertation du bac, Management Strategy , 10 , 7 45 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Carroll, A. ( 1979 ). How To Write? A three dimensional model of de franais, corporate performance . Academy of Management Review , 4 , 497 505 . CrossRef Clinebell, S. and Clinebell, J. ( 1994 ). The effect of advanced notice of plant closings on firm value . Journal of us foreign policy, Management , 20 , 553 64 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Doh, J. De Franais? P. and Guay, T. Charles Herreshoff? R. ( 2006 ). Du Bac De Franais? Corporate social responsibility, public policy and NGO activism in online cheap enviroment Europe and the United States: an institutional-stakeholder perspective . Journal of Management Studies , 43 , 1, 47 73 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Times Cited: 49 Donaldson, L. and Davis, J. H. ( 1991 ). 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Event studies in management research: theoretical and How to Make an Effective Missing, empirical issues . Academy of Management Journal , 40 , 626 57 . CrossRef | Web of Science® McWilliams, A. and du bac de franais, Siegel, D. ( 2000 ). Corporate social responsibility and financial performance: correlation or misspecification? . Essay Irish? Strategic Management Journal , 21 , 603 9 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® McWilliams, A. and Siegel, D. ( 2001 ). Corporate social responsibility: a theory of the firm perspective . Academy of Management Review , 26 , 117 27 . CrossRef | Web of Dissertation, Science® McWilliams, A. , Siegel, D. and Teoh, S. H. ( 1999 ). Issues in the use of the event study methodology: a critical analysis of corporate social responsibility studies . Organizational Research Methods , 2 , 340 65 . CrossRef McWilliams, A. , Van Fleet, D. D. and Cory, K. How To Pet Poster? ( 2002 ). Raising rivals’ costs through political strategy: an extension of the resource-based theory . Journal of Management Studies , 39 , 707 23 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Dissertation, Science® Milgrom, P. and Roberts, J. ( 1986 ). Advertising as signal of product quality . Journal of Political Economy , 94 , 796 821 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Orlitzky, M. Us Foreign Policy Thesis? , Schmidt, F. and Dissertation du bac, Rynes, S. Buy Essay Online Vs The? ( 2003 ). Corporate social and financial performance: a meta-analysis . Organization Studies , 24 , 403 41 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 273 Penrose, E. ( 1959 ). The Theory of the Growth of the Firm . Dissertation Du Bac? New York: Wiley.

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Do British companies really need a minister to make them socially responsible? . Dissertation Du Bac? Parliamentary Brief , 7 , 7 8 , Special Supplement on Business and the Community. Teece, D. , Pisano, G. and buy essay the economy vs the, Shuen, A. ( 1997 ). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management . Strategic Management Journal , 18 , 509 33 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Times Cited: 2351 Teoh, S. , Welch, I. and Wazzan, C. ( 1999 ). Dissertation De Franais? The effect of write argumentative essay, socially activist investment policies on the financial markets: evidence from the South African boycott . Journal of Business , 72 , 35 89 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Waddock, S. and Graves, S. ( 1997 ). The corporate social performance financial performance link . Strategic Management Journal , 18 , 303 19 . Dissertation Du Bac De Franais? Wiley Online Library | Web of order essay online culture in america, Science® Waldman, D. , Siegel, D. and Javidan, M. ( 2004 ). CEO transformational leadership and corporate social responsibility ’. Working paper, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Wernerfelt, B. ( 1984 ). A resource based view of the firm . Strategic Management Journal , 5 , 171 80 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Windsor, D. ( 2006 ). Corporate social responsibility: three key approaches . Journal of Management Studies , 43 , 1, 93 114 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Times Cited: 33 Worrell, D. , Davidson, W. and Sharma, V. ( 1991 ). Layoff announcements and du bac de franais, stockholder wealth . Academy of Management Journal , 38 , 662 78 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 62 Wright, P. and Ferris, S. Order Essay Online Cheap Irish Culture? ( 1997 ). De Franais? Agency conflict and us foreign, corporate strategy: the effect of divestment on corporate value . Strategic Management Journal , 18 , 77 83 . 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For SAT Test-Takers, Is ‘The Situation’ the Right Answer? Those readers of du bac de franais The Choice who took the cheap culture in america SAT last Saturday – or who may have had a child who did – know that one of the essay prompts asked them to give their opinions on reality television. As part of the prompt, students were asked: “How authentic can these shows be when producers design challenges for the participants and then editors alter filmed scenes?’’ In the days since, that portion of the exam has been a subject of no small amount of debate on the website College Confidential, as well as in publications that include The Daily News of New York and Washington Post. In an article just posted on The Times’s website, Angela Garcia, executive director of the SAT program, told me she did not believe it was unfair to pose that question to those students who may not spend their free time, such as it is, watching Mike “The Situation’’ Sorrentino on “Jersey Shore,’’ or “16 and Pregnant.’’ “It’s really about pop culture as a reference point that they would certainly have an opinion on,’’ she said.

Moreover, a College Board spokesman argued that the du bac de franais full prompt contained sufficient context for even non-TV watchers to construct an buy essay online, argument one way or another. I’ll share the full prompt in Dissertation a moment, but first, I wanted to extend an invitation to readers – those who may have taken the test, and buy essay the economy enviroment others who just have an du bac de franais, opinion – to use the comment box below to essay cheap irish in america let us know what you think. Now, the full text of the du bac prompt, as provided by the College Board: Reality television programs, which feature real people engaged in real activities rather than professional actors performing scripted scenes, are increasingly popular. These shows depict ordinary people competing in everything from singing and dancing to losing weight, or just living their everyday lives. Most people believe that the reality these shows portray is authentic, but they are being misled.

How authentic can these shows be when producers design challenges for the participants and then editors alter filmed scenes? Do people benefit from forms of entertainment that show so-called reality, or are such forms of entertainment harmful? And now, let us know what you think. Comments are no longer being accepted. First, the prompt is adequate for the SAT use. Second, the material is a total waste of the economy vs the enviroment broadcast time, and de franais as such is How to Make Pet Poster, harmful whether manipulated or not. I teach lots of undergraduates every year, and de franais the best ones are seldom big consumers of junk TV. Why skew the admissions system to order irish favor those who are? It reminds me (unhappily) of when my young daughter had trouble getting her vision problems evaluated — because the pediatric ophthalmologist used Disney characters instead of letters as the objects to be identified/ When I initially read the headline, I was upset that the Dissertation du bac de franais College Board would actually base a question around the “Jersey Shore.” However, this is just another example of writers sensationalizing something to charles herreshoff make it “newsworthy.” Kick it up a notch Mr.

Steinberg. I believe that this essay topic was extremely biased, and unlike any essay topic I have seen through my practice tests. I bought the College Board Official SAT Prep book, both the first and second editions, and none of the essay topics provided in du bac those books had ever given a reference to pop culture. This essay topic was also extremely difficult to write about, even with, as the policy thesis College Board spokesman said, “sufficient context”. Even with the “sufficient context” provided by Dissertation de franais, the box above the essay topic, it was extremely difficult to think of Make Pet Poster intelligent examples to du bac write about. Online. The topic was extremely narrow, unlike other topics College Board has offered students, such as questions about morals and technology.

Furthermore, in my household, I do not have premium cable TV, and therefore I do not have access to, and am not interested in, reality TV shows. With this hindrance, it was extremely difficult to create a cohesive argument. I can imagine that international students taking the de franais exam also faced a lot of difficulty thinking about examples, for not every nation in vs the enviroment the world offers reality TV. To conclude, this essay topic was not only biased towards certain students, but also completely a terrible indication of the students’ writing skills and intelligence. With all the complaints over the years about the SAT and College Board being biased against one group or another, I’d never realized they were biased against the sentient. I actually score the SAT essay for Pearson, and as long the student makes some reference to a key part of the prompt, he/she could achieve a perfect score. One prompt I read for was about the role of technology in our lives.

One student took the view that even though technology may be important, there are other things that we should value more. He/she then went on Dissertation, to describe a night out Make an Effective Pet Poster playing frisbee with friends. the du bac de franais student only mentioned the point of the prompt in the intro and I think in the conclusion. It received a top score. Writing exactly on the prompt is not necessary, and if students were given more opportunities to just write on an idea or situation, they’d be better prepared to buy essay online herreshoff handle curve balls. I was taking the SAT for the first time Saturday.

When I saw the question, I freaked out. I had no clue what to du bac de franais put down. My tutor had told me to use Martin Luther King as an online cheap vs the, example no matter what the question, and I don’t think he fits too easily into this topic. When I looked at my paper after the test and saw that I had written about Snooki on my SAT test, I felt pretty stupid to be honest. Shouldn’t we be encouraging college-bound students to Dissertation du bac aim a bit higher in their leisure pursuits? It’s bad enough that so many teens watch that schlock without the College Board seeming to How to Missing condone it… I think the question is perfectly fine for the SAT. I am not a consumer of Reality TV Shows, or TV in general. Du Bac. My husband loves Kitchen Nightmares, Hell’s Kitchen, Office and buy essay online cheap House. Yes, he has a weakness for the A type bullies. I am always around when he is watching his shows, half paying attention.

I am sure I could have written a good essay answering the question just living in the US today. De Franais. What the heck, even Afghanistan and cheap Pakistan have their own reality shows these days. You don’t have to be a consumer to Dissertation be able to opine, just be aware of the world around you — a critical skill for the college students and world citizens today. The ETS argument that the prompt is sufficient to provide a basis for online cheap vs the the essay verges on Dissertation de franais, the disingenuous. Essay Cheap Irish Culture. An intelligent and responsive essay would best draw on du bac de franais, examples and contexts from the program. Responding to the prompt alone tests, not the ability to construct a meaningful and cheap my essay clover valley dairy case coherent argument, but what is Dissertation, called by both students and buy essay online the economy vs the enviroment we faculty alike the ability to Dissertation “B.S.” The ability to construct a simulacrum of a meaningful answer may indeed be a useful academic skill, but if that is what ETS wishes to test for, it should be simple enough to create prompts that for all students require a discussion of a topic on which they have no substantive information beyond what is implied by dairy, the prompt. My 12 year old son took the SAT last Saturday as one of the requirements to enter a local university’s gifted youth program. Other than “Mythbusters” (that the organizers probably did not have in mind when soliciting comments), he has watched less than 5 realitiy show episodes in his entire life. He and I recalled 2-3 episodes of “Supernanny” when he was 5 or 6 and one episode of “Biggest Looser” at a friend’s home a year or so ago. We do not watch TV in our house (“Mythbusters” comes via Netflix on demand, when we have time) and Reality TV or Rap Lyrics or whatever the directors of the Dissertation du bac de franais SAT deam to be common pop culture, is how to write argumentative, not part of our daily life nor should it be assumed to Dissertation du bac be part of the life of a 12-18 year old student.

If it is, then where are the parents and teachers? Evaluating critical reasoning skills based on the assumption that everybody watches these shows is us foreign thesis, a contradiction in itself. My son commented on “Mythbusters” which he enjoys and which he thinks has some educational content. So do his parents. It reminds me of those questions they ask in beauty contests.

The point isn’t whether you know anything about the shows but whether you can formulate a reasonable response. The question isn’t about Dissertation de franais, show CONTENT. As an How to an Effective Pet Poster, adult who doesn’t watch those shows I could certainly respond to du bac de franais the question. My 15-year-old daughter who also doesn’t watch those shows says “But everyone’s HEARD about those kind of shows. I think that’s not reeeeally a valid complaint.” As a junior who took the SAT on Saturday, I was infuriated with the prompt. I read the online the economy vs the enviroment Times daily and I watch the news every night, so I am more than adequately prepared to discuss the disaster in Japan or the leadership issues with Mubarak and Dissertation Gaddafi. When I saw the prompt, my jaw became slack and my eyes twitched in charles horror. De Franais. SAT essays should reference literature and buy essay cheap current events, not reality television. i’ve done test prep for 20 years and This prompt is problematic on several levels:

1. Du Bac De Franais. given the sever time limitations students who watch reality will have an unfair advantage since the reference point is much more familiar and buy essay online cheap charles the examples are much more well know. unlike other topics the reality tv topic is not a topic you can reasonably expect to have been addressed in school or some other setting other than the Dissertation du bac de franais context of an Effective Pet Poster television. one might go so far to say it gives an advantage to those with a TV again increasing the economic biases of the test. 2. Dissertation. this prompt is How to Pet Poster, unlike more than 95% of the sample prompts that are available to familiarize students with the test. How can a student plan for a prepare to do their best if all sample topics lend them selves to academic exploration and suddenly they are given a almost exclusively pop culture topic. De Franais. again it does prevent a student from writing well but it will certainly disadvantage some. This leads to serious questions about the test. Can the SAT maintain its claims of being ” a fair test” and “an objective measure” ? How can universities take this test seriously when they are violating their own published testing parameters? How can one not read sinister intent into the test creation when unnecessary “surprises like this are unequally sprung on test takers? Considering average SAT essay topics, this one is policy, way too narrow. I took the SAT last Saturday and I personally found it challenging mainly because I’m not aware of what actually happens in a reality tv show, but i also thought it was a particularly boring prompt and i would have preferred something more thought provoking. The SAT used to get slammed for Dissertation du bac de franais being stodgy and elitist and buy essay cheap herreshoff now it’s being attacked for the opposite du bac de franais reason. Kudos to the College Board for its efforts to make the SAT more approachable and relevant to kids’ lives. This is a step in the right direction.

Personally, I believe that this question is yet another example of what’s wrong in the US today. I understand that a lot of people watch a lot of reality television today, but whether the prompt gave a decent set-up for an essay or not, the question put the emphasis on the lowest of the low and privileged students who watch television rather than engaging in real life themselves. Please… the questions are just designed to how to argumentative essay test the student’s writing skills. They don’t care that you give a detailed analysis of Jersey Shore’s editing versus The Real World’s. If you don’t know the de franais subject, just go with what the culture question asks you and try to analogize it to something you do know about. If you don’t watch tv, presumably you’re a fairly well-read student, so talk about the problems of perspective and character in a favorite work of literature. Dissertation Du Bac. I have zero sympathy for how to write a formal essay test takers that couldn’t figure out something to du bac say in response to this prompt. I’m a college sophomore who was not and is not a fan of reality tv, but I don’t have a problem with the College Board using this prompt. As I believe regular readers of online the economy enviroment this blog will know, the Dissertation de franais exact content of the essay doesn’t matter much. I doubt that test-takers had to know specific examples of reality tv shows to write a good essay on the topic of authenticity in entertainment which, as far as I can tell, is really what this prompt is us foreign policy, about.

Wow, what a terrible prompt. There are so many controversial issues of *real* importance in de franais the world today about which students could be asked to write persuasively… and this is what they choose? Will that prompt be re-used in future administrations? Seriously, as a standardized test designer with extensive experience in buy essay online prompt- and Dissertation item-writing for nationally administered standardized examinations, I can not believe that a prompt like that ever got out of bias-review or past a validiation committee. I would encouarge any examinee who felt prejudicially affected by that question to order online culture file a lawsuit against the College Board and ETS. Of course these prompts are written not to test knowledge of a specific area, but to Dissertation du bac test writing skills, and buy essay online cheap charles the ability to bring one area of expertise to bear on another. Du Bac De Franais. Students could well be misled by this prompt to write too much about a particular reality show, and in the language of the internet. To succeed, the students needn’t have any knowledge of a show, but they do need to essay online cheap culture in america know something about production values, faked narratives, manipulated fights, and humiliation. References to Roman circuses and Freak Show history would help. A good student of history or art history, a good student of de franais sociology or psychology could answer this question well by referring to those areas of Missing expertise.

Without outside knowledge of what’s real and what’s edited or staged, the prompt doesn’t contain enough detail to Dissertation de franais discuss it meaningfully. Make. It encourages – requires – uninformed yet confident opinions. It’s interesting, isn’t it, how we assume that an SAT score measures something objective, and something larger than how well a student answered particular questions asked on a particular day? We think that a student who takes the test one month has a score that can be compared to a student who took the test, composed of different questions, the du bac de franais following month. How To Argumentative Essay. We believe, in other words, the hype that the Dissertation test is “objective” and can, in cheap my essay clover dairy case a “scientifically valid way,” reduce an individual to a score. What is so nice about Dissertation du bac, this reality television essay question is how it explodes the buy essay cheap herreshoff myth that standardized tests are objective. This particular test doesn’t — indeed, cannot possibly — measure how well one “writes, as if pure “writing” could be divorced from content. Instead it measures how well one answers a particular question. The same student can write a brilliant essay in response to one question, and a total dud of an essay in response to another.

Thanks to Saturday’s SAT, this reality is all the de franais clearer.