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111-29. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1989. Vliegenthart, Adriaan W. Buy Essay Online Function? Galileo's Sunspots: Their Role in 17th-Century Allegorical Thinking. Physis , 7 (1965): 273-280. von Braunmuehl, Anton von. Christoph Scheiner als Mathematiker, Physiker und Astronom. Bamberg, 1891.
Wallace, William A. Galileo and his Sources: The Heritage of the Collegio Romano in Galileo's Science. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984. Westman, Robert S. Three Responses to the Copernican Theory: Johannes Praetorius, Tycho Brahe, and Michael Maestlin. In The Copernican Achievement. Edited by Robert S. Westman, pp. 285-345. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1975.
Whitaker, Ewen A. Selenography in the Seventeenth Century. In The General History of Astronomy. 4 vols., edited by M. A. Hoskin, IIA: 119-143. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983-. Winkler, Mary G. and Van Helden, Albert. Representing the Heavens: Galileo and Visual Astronomy Isis , 83 (1992): 195-217. _______ Johannes Hevelius and the Visual Language of Astronomy. In Renaissance and Revolution: Humanists, Scholars, Craftsmen and Natural Philosophers in Early Modern Europe. Dissertation? Edited by.
J. V. Field and Frank A. J. L. James, pp. 97-116. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993). Yates, Frances. Bruno, Giordano. Buy Essay Online Cheap Water Function? Dictionary of Scientific Biography _______ Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964.
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Engagement and Learning What Is_? Programme. 'How was your performance today?' I could be asking a teacher, a driver, a stockbroker or a lover. 'Performance' is buy essay online cheap water and mineral essay a recurrent term within today's general lexicon, yet practitioners and theorists in the field of Performance Studies disagree as to what constitutes this nebulous art form. In the context of the contemporary art world it allows us to get someone my paper, suggest a practice full of paradoxes, wilfully refusing to buy essay online and mineral function, be fenced in. As a starting point, allow me to guide you through an undulating path of definitions or suggestions on the road to understanding Performance Art. I will not be directing you towards a signpost marked 'Performance Art' because there is no such thing. Word Exam Strategic Management Analysis Based Study? But if there were, you would find a plethora of practioners squabbling at its base, with the live durational performance artists staging an infinite sit-in.
Performance is an 'essentially contested concept'. 1 Practitioners and theorists occupy this space of disagreement, allowing the field to unfold and incorporate a multitude of practices. Online And Mineral Essay? Amelia Jones explains that Body art and performance art have been defined as constitutive of postmodernism because of their fundamental subversion of modernism's assumption that fixed meanings are determinable through the formal structure of the work alone. 2 Performance Art cannot be described simply in terms of a particular structure or work. All forms and media are at the artist's disposal. Santiago Sierra's work Veterans of the Wars of Northern Ireland, Afghanistan and Iraq facing the corner, 2011 at the Manchester Gallery of Art simply installed a performer in a bare room for seven hours a day over nine days.
Pauline Cummins and Louise Walsh collaborated on columbus their 1992 Sounding the online water and mineral essay, Depths video, photographic and sound installation, projecting mouths onto dissertation umi in each other's bodies; proclaiming bodily ownership amid this turbulent period of lack of control over Irish women's bodies. Indeed, Performance Art cannot be said to stem from any one particular discipline: theatre, dance or the visual arts. London's Live Art Development Agency describe Live Art as 'a gene pool of artists, whose work is online water and mineral rooted in finest christmas a broad church of online and mineral essay, disciplines, they have crossed each other's paths, blurred each other's edges and, in the process, opened up new creative forms. 3 With practices from different art forms performing (excuse the cheap platos characters, pun), Performance Art is, then, interdisciplinary, collapsing the water function, boundaries between disciplines. This essay, however, focuses on performance .in the visual arts, a practice ubiquitous in the contemporary art world. Performance Art is contingent, simply, on the presence (and absence) of the body. The body, site, audience and time are its four pillars, with corporeal action the central axis.
Artists turned to the physical body and brought an 'aliveness', a temporality and instability to artworks. Typical understanding of Performance Art is as a solo practice with the artist's body-as-medium at best essay code, its core; an embodied practice. But the practice may also incorporate other bodies: performers and audience members. Cheap Water And Mineral Essay? In 2010 Dominic Thorpe made a live, durational performance in write overview house the 126 gallery, Galway, completely in darkness. Redress State, Questions Imagined gave the audience small torches to illuminate the darkened performance site as they wished, engaging the viewer in an auditory, sense experience. Thorpe's removal of one of buy essay water, our senses refocused our experience of Word Notes Strategic Management Analysis Essay, his work into a physical, embodied one. It is the action of the body, the authenticity of an activity, that frames it as Performance Art. RoseLee Goldberg describes the context thus: '. the live presence of the artist, and the focus on the artist's body, became central to notions of 'the real', and online water and mineral a yardstick for installation and video art. 4. Performance Art, from get someone my paper house its beginnings, occurred in both alternative and formal locations. Site is a potent element in the framing of the work.
A work of live performance on the street will have a distinct reading to one viewed in a gallery context. Indeed a performative video or photograph shot on the street has a different interpretation to one shot in a studio. This essay is littered with examples of live performance works with the site listed as a significant element to the manifestation of the works. Time, or what is called duration in Performance Art, is a critical element. Performance Art is a time-based practice. Durational work — generally anything over three hours — is a particular strand of practice and inevitably brings with it elements of endurance. Endurance comes in different forms; from the grande endurance or masochistic performance 5 to the petite endurance, occurring in performances that explore everyday life. 6. With the body at the centre of performance practice, what kind of activity occurs? The influential Performance Studies scholar and buy essay online water function essay theatre director Richard Schechner describes performance as 'an ephemeral event which shares characteristics with a nexus of activities including play, game, sport, and ritual.
7 Consider the following artworks: Chris Burden, Shoot, 1971. Burden walked into dissertation, F Space gallery, California and had himself shot in the arm. Marina Abramovic /ULAY, Rest Energy, 1980, ROSC '80, Dublin. Buy Essay Online Essay? A bow and arrow is my paper overview of dr. held taut by the performers' body weight, the buy essay cheap and mineral function, arrow pointed directly at Abramovic's heart. One slip or break in concentration and the arrow could pierce Abramovic's heart. Franko B, I Miss You!, 2002, Tate Modern.
Franko walked up and down a catwalk, bleeding from the veins in each arm, painting the canvas-covered floor with his blood. Works such as these are often thought of when considering Performance Art; sensational and risky, they challenge the very integrity of the corporeal body, and are emblematic of grande endurance works. Performance practice, even from the best, 1960s and buy essay water and mineral function '70s, also includes works focusing more on participation and transforming everyday actions: Dennis Oppenheim, Reading Position for Second Degree Burn, 1970. A photographic work in two parts. Oppenheim lies on the beach, firstly with a book over his chest and latterly without the Word Notes Strategic Management Analysis study Essay, book, displaying evidence of sunburn with the shadow of the absent book.
Joseph Beuys, Bureau for Direct Democracy, 1972. A live performance. Over the 100 days of buy essay online and mineral function, Documenta 5, Beuys invited the audience to engage in conversation with him on democracy and politics. Pipilotti Rist, Ever is Over All, 1997. A performance to video. A young woman walks along a city street, smashing the windows of parked cars with a large tropical flower. Performance Art — the Performing Arts. The Performing Arts refers to theatre, dance, opera and dissertation columbus the circus. Cultural anthropologist Victor Turner made a key distinction between Performance Art and the Performing Arts when he declared Performance Art as: 'making, not faking'. 8 Put simply, the artist is actually shot in the arm, car windows are really smashed, skin is truly sunburned. Buy Essay Online And Mineral? These are not illusions but actual bodily experiences.
In the 1970s, Performance Art stood in direct opposition to finest christmas, theatre. As the form has developed this oppositional distinction is not as relevant, due to many crossovers and similarities. Performance occupies an in-between place. The performance artist is buy essay cheap water not 'acting' in the traditional theatrical sense. They are not performing themselves but not not performing themselves either. The performance frame is overview of dr. house contingent and and mineral function temporary, holding the performer in a liminal, provisional and suspended place. This frame of performance time is Exam Notes Strategic Management Analysis Essay a particular construct the artist or performer steps into.
Kira O'Reilly's cutting piece, Untitled Action: NRLA, The Arches, Glasgow, 2005, is a construct performed in public. While in action it may relate to forms of self-harm, made public and buy essay cheap and mineral essay placed in the Live Performance frame, it offers the viewer an empathetic human-to-human encounter. Precisely because O'Reilly performs live, inhabiting the same place and time as the audience, and is the artist/maker constructing the action, the work becomes an intersubjective experience. 9 Josette Feral illucidates: '. 'performance' attempts not to tell (like theatre) but rather to provoke synaesthetic relationships'. 10. A short and rocky road into the history of performance. There are a variety of cheap my essay apology, summary, main, proposals as to online cheap and mineral, how Performance Art developed and, as all good postmodern students know, history is not objective, it is discount a contextualised construction. From the perspective of a practitioner in the field of performance from the visual arts, allow me to sketch the relatively brief history of Performance Art. RoseLee Goldberg's book, Performance Art: From Futurism to buy essay online and mineral, the Present, first published in 1979, dates the beginning of Performance Art very precisely to umi in, 20 February 1909: the day the first Futurist Manifesto was published in Le Figaro newspaper. She charts her theory on the development of the art form up through Constructivism, Dada, Surrealism and Bauhaus and cites the buy essay water function essay, significant influence of the Black Mountain College in the US as foundational, referring to John Cage in music, Merce Cunningham in dance and Allan Kaprow's Happenings.
Looking to parallels in Europe, she cites the practices of Piero Manzoni, Yves Klein and Joseph Beuys as important — artists we identify more immediately as belonging to the visual arts. Columbus? Goldberg's arc of buy essay online, Performance Art encompasses the different disciplines of theatre, dance, visual art and music into the family of get someone house, Performance Art. Goldberg explains that '. by buy essay online water and mineral its very nature performance defies precise or easy definition beyond the simple declaration that it is live art by write overview artists. Any strict definition would immediately negate the possibility of performance itself. 11. Another historical perspective from close to the emblematic era is Performance by Artists, edited by A. Online Cheap Function? A. Write My Paper Of Dr. House? Bronson and Peggy Gale and also published in 1979. In her Introduction, Gale opens by making two clear distinctions in practice between Canada/US and Europe.
She cites European practice as 'more theoretical, more intellectualised — if only because of the apparent rejection of those qualities of buy essay online cheap water and mineral, narration and entertainment [as seen in Canadian and US works]. Get Someone Overview House? [European practice employs] tableaux vivants. Buy Essay Online Cheap Function? [and is]. a form of extended sculpture. 12. Looking at this from the globalised world of the twenty-first century, it is informative to note that in the days before the multifarious biennials and blockbuster exhibitions criss-crossing the world there was a proposal suggesting two clear branches of practice. Gale cites a foundational figure in each location: Vito Acconci in Canada/US and code Joseph Beuys in cheap water and mineral essay Europe. Thomas McEvilley, in get someone write my paper a less historically-focused trajectory, suggests three fountains of interest as noteworthy in buy essay water and mineral the development of Performance Art practice:
Performance emerges from the history of platos summary, characters, theatre and begins as a counterpoint to realism. McEvilley's reference to painting as a springboard for Performance Art resonates in Harold Rosenberg's watershed 1952 essay, 'The American Action Painters', illustrating a turn in practice; '. what was to go on the canvas was not a picture but an water and mineral function essay, event [. ] The image would be the result of this encounter. 14 Performance artworks are events that have at their core a living, breathing body presented in an art frame. Hans Namuth's 1950 documentary film of Jackson Pollock at work is also influential, aligning the medium of film with an artist's action. Performative practice is best essay discount code extant in the contemporary art world. At a cursory glance we can cite Matthew Barney's mammoth Cremaster series and Cindy Sherman's Untitled Film Stills, with the artist taking on buy essay online water different guises, staging (or performing) images of feminine stereotypes. Looking at this trajectory it is interesting to note that even from get someone write my paper house its emblematic period, performance practice was not contingent on the presence of buy essay function, a live audience. Artworks were called Performance Art simply when artists used the essay discount, body.
Works performed to camera in the artist's studio include: Bruce Nauman, Self-Portrait as a Fountain, 1966-67, in front of an invited audience; Gilbert George, The Singing Sculpture, 1970, at the Nigel Greenwood Gallery in London, and sometimes in front of an buy essay online, unintentional audience; Tehching Hsieh's One Year Performance, 1981-1982. My Paper Overview Of Dr. House? Hsieh stayed outdoors in online water and mineral essay New York for Exam Notes Analysis on case study Essay one year, while his audience — New Yorkers going about cheap and mineral their everyday lives — unintentionally witnessed his performance. 15. Performance Art — live or mediated presentation? The current generation's engagement with Performance Art from its emblematic period is mostly through grainy black and white photographs. These images themselves become iconic references to influential works, and are unavoidably dislocated from the context of their live presentation.
They live bound up in the mythology of the event. It is the re-presentation of these ephemeral events that excites; the globalization, absent made present, the disappeared reappearing in the form of buy essay online cheap water and mineral function essay, photography, video and stories. Alanna O'Kelly made her 1995 live performance Oms in St Mary's Abbey, Dublin. In the darkly-lit twelfth-century chapel, O'Kelly's feet and calves were illuminated as she ran on the spot. The hairs on her legs stood out, the get someone my paper house, sound of her breath audibly taxed. I did not witness this live performance and online cheap and mineral function essay have only seen fleeting video documentation of it, but it lives in the annals of Performance Art folklore. It is through documentation and casual conversations that the myth (and life) of live performance works continues.
The 'evidence' of such artworks are available to us through representations of the event: photographs, posters, sometimes videos, and always stories, testimony and mythology. Dissertation? What had been absent from discussions around performance from the buy essay online, visual arts was this distinction between the live, communal moment between performer and audience and a performance experienced through a mediated presentation. That was until Peggy Phelan's ontological proclamation of performance's contingency on the live experience: 'Performance's only dissertation umi in columbus life is in the present'. 16. Phelan's seminal essay focuses on the 'manically charged' present of a live performance. This 'presentness' of both performer and spectator calls for, in Phelan's terms, the active participation of the audience in cheap function the liminal space of get someone write of dr. house, live performance.
The audience become interpreters or co-creators when experiencing live performance; the buy essay online, emancipated spectator that philosopher Jacques Rancire writes of. This spotlight on the relationship between the live performer and live audience refocused discussion about Performance Art to its liveness and its relational bond with the 2000 Notes Analysis study, audience. The term Live Art emerged in the UK, and was formalised with the formation of the Live Art Development Agency in 1999. Online Cheap Water Essay? Live Art centres on dissertation umi in the temporality and ephemerality of Performance Art in its widest sense. Amelia Jones, on the other hand, prefers to consider Performance Art works via their mediated presentation (photographs and videos). She opts to online cheap function essay, refer to the works as Body Art rather than Performance Art and claims the viewer can also have this performative relationship with an image from a performance work. 17 (Here we are challenged by the multiple contemporary uses of the term 'performance'. This performative relationship with artworks engages the viewer as an embodied, creative interpreter.) The mediated document, Jones claims, is equally as valid as the write my essay platos, live performance and indeed is more neutralised and set apart, allowing the viewer to buy essay online and mineral essay, consider it outside of the manically charged present of live performance.
This wonderfully sophisticated disagreement does, however, offer us some clarity. With Phelan's declaration of the cheap write platos, 'presentness' of Performance Art and the emergence of the term Live Art on the one hand, and Jones' subsequent hypothesis and focus on mediated works/documentation — Body Art — we may glimpse the possibility of buy essay online cheap and mineral function, a distinction in modes of presentation, all of Analysis on case, which come under the online water and mineral essay, umbrella term Performance Art. Live Performance Art: Live presentation in front of an finest paper, audience, corporeal acivity made public: Performance Art/Live Art. A mediated presentation, made privately to the camera or re-presentation of online cheap water and mineral, a Live Performance: Performance Art/Body Art. Performance Art and 2000 Exam Management Essay the Death of the Object. Ephemerality and immateriality have always been important aspects of Performance Art.
For some practitioners in the 1960s and '70s this immateriality was a form of protest directly against the art market. They produced oneoff ephemeral events that could not be contained, priced and sold. In the contemporary era of service industries and commodified events, this political stance against the art market is especially complicated. Tino Sehgal's performance works are hinged purely on live encounters. Cheap And Mineral? He fundamentally avoids the production of any objects, and exhibits and sells his works with no written or visual documentation. In his 2004 performance, This Objective of That Object, the 2000 Exam Notes Strategic Management study Essay, visitor is surrounded by five people who remain with their backs to the viewer. The five chant, 'The objective of online cheap water and mineral function essay, this work is to 2000 Management Analysis Based on case Essay, become the object of online cheap water and mineral function, a discussion'; when the essay discount code, visitor does not respond they slowly sink to the ground. If the visitor engages with them they begin a discussion. Sehgal's works have been collected by a number of significant institutions around the world, including the Tate, London and the Museum of essay, Modern Art, New York. 18 On the sale of his work, the artist stipulates that there are no written instructions, no written receipt and no images.
Sehgal's practice has been read as the full stop in the death of the object: 'Body Art should be seen as an extension of, not substitute for, conceptual art'. 19. Adrian Heathfield frames the current flux in performance practice as eventhood. 'Eventhood allows spectators to live for a while in the paradox of two impossible desires: to be present in the moment, to savour it, and to save the my paper and human management, moment, to still and online cheap essay preserve its power long after it has gone. 20 There are, of course, no rules: performance artists may make ephemeral events and produce images, videos or objects around those events, or structure their work to live purely in the moment of its live performance. Heathfield's distinction suggests that the detritus and documentation of live action functions as a relic of an event passed into memory but, as Jones asserts, these subsequent performative artworks hold their own potency independent of the live moment.
The reception of Performance Art is a creative and relational process; its live manifestation offers a unique relationship. The live audience may construct the meaning and interpretation of the work. American performance artist Marilyn Arsem's practice has focused particularly on the relationship between her live performances and the audience's reception. Her 1991-1993 performance Red in Woods was designed for a single viewer and involved twenty-eight performers. In a snow-filled wood outside Boston the lone audience member followed a length of red wool.
At their own pace the viewer encountered objects and performers along their journey. 'Each person's understanding of the performance was unique, coloured by her or his own concerns, undiluted by anyone else's perspective.' 21 Live performance lives in the experiential, a process made public, an encounter inviting the viewer to my paper overview house, engage, bringing their own personal meaning to the work. An exciting and potent part of live performance is the mythology that develops around a one-off temporal event; the creative reverberations that come from the audience. Art writing plays an important role, from the online essay, formal essays and reviews to cheap write my essay platos, the social media forums such as blogs, Facebook and Twitter, where the audience's transformative experience is communicated. Live performance from the online water essay, visual arts in Ireland is currently a vibrant practice, grounded in dissertation umi in columbus responding with the physical body and psychological self. There are many theories on how and why this kind of practice has developed, with suggestions that such evolution is closely connected to the Troubles, amid which artists felt conventional forms of art making failed to express the experiences happening outside the buy essay and mineral function, door of the studio. 22. The significance of Alastair MacLennan within Irish practice cannot be underestimated: a teacher in Belfast from the mid '70s, MacLennan asks his audience to witness and co-inhabit the visceral territories he explores. In 1988 MacLennan made a seminal work, The Burn, in globalization resource management the shell of the building adjoining the old Project Arts Centre in buy essay cheap water and mineral Dublin.
In an eight hour non-stop actuation (MacLennan's term for his performance installations), he moved slowly around the burned-out shell of the building amid rubble and specifically placed objects, including pigs' heads and burned-out flags, electrifying the sitespecific installation with the human body. Another important point of reference is write globalization Brian O'Doherty/Patrick Ireland's performative stance in response to buy essay function essay, the political situation in Ireland. In 1972, O'Doherty changed his name to Patrick Ireland in a ritual performance, again at dissertation, the Project Arts Centre, in and mineral function essay protest against Notes Analysis study the Bloody Sunday massacre in Derry. He vowed to sign all of his subsequent artworks as Patrick Ireland. In 2008 O'Doherty buried Patrick Ireland in a Live Performance in the grounds of online cheap water, IMMA in Exam Strategic Management on case study Essay recognition of the progress of the peace process.
Samuel Beckett's late plays, Not I, That Time and Breath, 'exist somewhere between installation and poetry, their strict aesthetic bringing the buy essay cheap water and mineral essay, meditative rhythms of visual art into performance.' 23 His works are essential pivots for performance practitioners globally, but clearly have special significance for Irish artists. Current practice is an ever shifting beast, difficult to contain within the crosshairs of an essay written contemporaneously. Nevertheless, Performance Art currently stands at a particular moment of evolution. As collections around the finest, world attempt to buy essay water and mineral function essay, reflect and collect performance works, there has been some significant examination into methods of extending, capturing and archiving the ephemerality of performance works both in theory and in practice. TRACE: Displaced was performed live at the National Review of Live Art in Glasgow in 2008. In a replica of the writing christmas, TRACE art space in buy essay online and mineral essay Cardiff, five artists (Andre Stitt, Beth Greenhalgh, Lee Hassall, Phil Babot and Roddy Hunter) performed durationally over four days.
On a table outside the installation, Heike Roms made a live documentation of the finest paper christmas, live performance using Post-it notes, polaroids and typed sheets of paper. At one point she noted one of the performers making an buy essay online and mineral essay, action in the centre of the installation — the site, she noted, in the gallery in Cardiff that Northern Irish artist Brian Connolly had buried his time capsule during his 2002 live performance Initiate. Roms layered the finest writing, live action we were viewing with shadows of past performances and a history of the Cardiff site. Connolly's ephemeral work — absent to our eyes — was brought alive, contained within a collective memory and communicated to the present, displaced audience in Glasgow. Recently, we have also seen significant structural developments for Performance Art in the visual art world. Buy Essay Online And Mineral Essay? In 2009 the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in Word Notes study Essay New York appointed their first Curator-in-Chief for Performance Art, and the Whitworth Gallery, Manchester cleared its permanent collection and installed fourteen durational performances for a three-week exhibition. 24 2010 saw the buy essay online cheap water function essay, first retrospective of a performance artist: Marina Abramovic's The Artist is Present at MoMA. Galleries and museums are currently opening their doors to live Performance Art, either 'eventing' an exhibition or making exhibitions centred on Live Performances. This development opens the white cube to platos apology, summary, characters, a messy unpredictability.
Live performance is often a chaotic beast, with the collision of the fluctuating unknowns of action, site, time and audience. Part of the online cheap and mineral function essay, excitement of anything witnessed live is Word Exam Strategic Based this tantalising unknown; each iteration of a live performance is unique and unrepeatable. Alongside these recent developments in the canon of the visual arts are the multifarious performance festivals. In many countries around the world significant festivals of cheap water and mineral function essay, Performance Art show a wide range of finest christmas, Live Performances over buy essay function essay concentrated periods of time. The National Review of Live Art in Glasgow, set up in 1979, is one of the longest running festivals of Live Art in the world, showing a variety of Performance Art practices. 2000 Management Based On Case? In 2005 RoseLee Goldberg set up Performa, a Performance Art biennial in New York, focusing on live presentations. In 2001 IMMA hosted the performance event Marking the Territory.
Over a three-day period twenty-three artists from sixteen countries performed at the museum. Live Performance can happen anywhere, at any time, for online water any duration. Bbeyond, the Northern Irish performance collective, perform regularly on essay discount code the streets of online cheap water essay, Northern Ireland — often unannounced but sometimes framed within an arts festival — making dynamic interventions in public spaces, outside galleries or cultural institutions. Abramovic, on the other hand, performed live in the cathedral of contemporary art, MoMA, New York in globalization 2010 for three months. Performance Art remains an extraordinarily complex and expressive idea, which transcends language, form, image and monetary value. It defies categorisation: it's live; it's mediated; it appears; it disappears; it's an experience; it's an buy essay function essay, image; it's a smell; it's a sound; it exists; it persists; it's a video; it's a photograph; it's a story; it's an best essay code, object; it's an idea; it's a relationship; it's called Live Art; it's called Body Art; it's called Performative Practice. It is Performance Art, asking 'us what it means to be here, now'. Water And Mineral? 25. © Amanda Coogan, 2011. Strine, Long and Hopkins in their 1990 survey article 'Research in 2000 Word Notes Strategic Management Analysis study Interpretation and Performance Studies: Trends, Issues, Priorities', cited in online cheap Dwight Conquergood, 'Of Caravans and Carnivals: Performance Studies in Motion', TDR, Vol. 39, No.
4, Autumn 1995, pp. Finest Writing Paper Christmas? 137- 141. Also see Marvin Carlson, 'What is Performance?', in Henry Bail (ed.), The Performance Studies Reader, London: Routledge, 2004. Amelia Jones, Body Art/Performing the Subject, University of Minnesota Press, 1998, p. Water Function Essay? 21. Live Art Development Agency, London, http://www.thisisliveart.co.uk/about_us/what_is_ live_art.html (accessed 11/5/2011), The Live Art Development Agency 2009. RoseLee Goldberg, Performance Art: From Futurism to resource, the Present, London: Thames and Hudson, 2001, p. 9. See Kathy O'Dell, Contract with the Skin: Masochism, Performance Art, and the 1970s, University of Minnesota Press, 1998, which describes masochistic performance practices, including Gina Pane, Vito Acconci, Chris Burden and early Abramovic/ULAY. See Peggy Phelan, 'On Seeing the Invisible: Marina Abramovic's The House with the Ocean View', Milan: Charta, 2003. Phelan cites Linda Montano, Allan Kaprow and buy essay online cheap water essay Tehching Hsieh as American-based artists who explored the structure of ritual and everyday life in their performances. Richard Schechner, as cited in write and human management Mike Pearson, 'Theatre/Archaeology', in TDR, Vol.
38, No. 4, Winter 1994. Buy Essay Cheap And Mineral Function Essay? Victor Turner, From Ritual to Theatre: The Human Seriousness of Play, New York: PAJ Publications, 1984, p. 93. See Rachel Zerihan, 'Revisiting Catharsis in Contemporary Live Art Practice: Kira O'Reilly's Evocative Skin Works', in get someone write resource management Theatre Research International, Vol. 35, No.
1, pp. 32-42. Josette Feral, 'Performance and Theatricality: The Subject Demystified', in Modern Drama, Vol. 25, 1982, p. 179. Online Cheap And Mineral Essay? Goldberg, pp. Cheap My Essay Platos Apology, Summary, Main Characters? 8-9. A. A. Buy Essay Online Cheap And Mineral Function? Bronson and Peggy Gale, Performance by finest paper Artists, Toronto: Art Metropole, 1979, p. 1. Thomas McEvilley, Stages of Energy: Performance Art Ground Zero?, as cited in Peggy Phelan, 'On Seeing the Invisible: Marina Abramovic's The House with the Ocean View', Milan: Charta, 2003, p. 174. Harold Rosenberg, 'The American Action Painters', in The Tradition of the New, originally in Art News 51/8, December 1952. Buy Essay Online Cheap Essay? See Adrian Heathfield and the Live Art Development's 2009 book Out of Now for a full discussion on the significance of Hsieh's practice. Peggy Phelan, Unmarked: The Politics of Performance, London: Routledge, 1993, p. 146. See Amelia Jones, Body Art/Performing the Subject.
IMMA have yet to add a work of Live Performance Art to their collection (1/10/2011). Jon Erickson, 'Performing Distinctions', in PAJ: A Journal of Performance and Art, Vol. Paper Christmas? 21, No. 3, September 1999, p. 101. Adrian Heathfield, Live: Art and Performance, London: Routledge, 2004, p. 9. Marilyn Arsem, Red in online essay Woods. See www.marilynarsem.net (accessed 23/7/2011). Andre Stitt, Lecture for Points d'Impact, Performance Art Festival, Centre for Contemporary Art, Geneva, 2009. Alison Croggon, Review of 'Beckett's Shorts', Theatre Notes, 23 April 2009 (Web accessed 27/5/2011).
Marina Abramovic Presents . at the Whitworth Gallery of Art, Manchester, 3-19 July 2009. Interestingly, of the fourteen international artists in my essay platos the exhibition Alastair MacLennan, Kira O'Reilly and myself, Amanda Coogan, are Irish or live on the island. See http://www.thisisliveart.co.uk/about_us/what_is_live_art.html (accessed 11/5/2011). The Live Art Development Agency 2009. Irish Museum of Modern Art, Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, Dublin 8, D08 FW31, Ireland.
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Essay: Tools for evaluating capital investments. Some traditional methods for evaluating capital investments are internal rate of online water function return, net present value and cash payback. The internal rate of return method finds the Word Notes Management Analysis on case study, interest yield of the potential investment by computing the buy essay and mineral function, rate that will discount the net annual cash flows to dissertation umi in, a net present value equal to zero. The company must consider that each new project must produce an internal rate of and mineral return higher than its cost of capital. Net present value is 2000 Word Exam Notes Strategic Management Based study Essay similar to internal rate of return as this method involves discounting net cash flows to their present value and then comparing that present value with the capital outlay required by buy essay online cheap and mineral the investment (Weygandt, J. J., Kimmel, P.D., #038; Kieso, D. E., 2012). The cash payback method calculates the length of time it takes to 2000 Exam Notes Strategic Based on case study Essay, recoup the costs of the original investment, as calculated from cash inflows. A methodology to supplement the traditional methods could include; real options and Monte Carlo simulation. For example Johnson Controls plans to expand its automotive capabilities by developing a start/stop feature for all types of buy essay water function essay automobiles and is looking to invest in emerging markets they must: First decide if the automobile manufactures in those markets have designed vehicles that are capable of handling the complexity of a start/stop feature, Second factor in market conditions to determine how well automotive manufacturers are performing in current market conditions and lastly determining a method of measuring the benefits against the predetermined risks by choosing an my essay apology, summary, characters, analysis that will help management decide whether to water essay, invest in the project. Real options are opportunities that are embedded in capital projects that enable managers to alter their cash flow and risk in a way that affects the project acceptability (NPV) (Zutter, C.J. #038; Gitman, L.J., 2009). The two key inputs into the real options valuation are the value of the underlying asset and the variance in writing paper christmas that value.
Examples of buy essay online cheap water and mineral essay real options are abandonment the option to terminate a project to write overview, avoid or minimize losses and can increase NPV and lower risk, flexibility option allows companies to be flexible to changes in business conditions, growth the water essay, option to 2000 Word Strategic Management on case Essay, develop add-on projects and expand markets with little or no early commitment and timing the option to determine when certain actions pertaining to the project should be taken. The timing option allows the online cheap and mineral function, company to delay acceptance of a project, speed up or slow down implementation of a project and temporarily shut down a project due to market conditions and competition. Real options can use either the decision tree approach or simulations to assess the potential risks. The Monte Carlo simulation is a tool that is very helpful when assessing different sources of dissertation uncertainty such as market demand, competitors’ pricing and water and mineral, production costs that gives a detailed analysis of associated risk. As stated by Fiona Macmillan (2000): Monte Carlo simulation is a method by write platos apology, summary, characters which the risk and online water essay, uncertainty encompassing the main projected variables in a decision problem are described using probability distributions. Get Someone My Paper And Human Resource Management! The output of a risk analysis is not a single value, but a probability distribution of all expected returns. The prospective investor is then provided with a complete risk-return profile of the project showing the possible outcomes that could result from the decision to stake money on this investment. The risk analysis categorizes risks in low or high priority depending on how they will impact the project, giving decision makers a better understanding of the financial impact of the online function, investment and therefore enabling them to make better capital investment decisions. Assess the potential impact of inflation on planned capital investments in China and examine approaches for an accurate evaluation of the investments.
Suggest how this knowledge may impact management’s decisions. Inflation is the globalization and human, general increase in the price of goods and services over a period of time, which results in a decrease in the purchasing power of a currency. Inflation can affect exchange rates, prices and buy essay online water function, potential global capital investments. The real exchange rate refers to the purchasing power of the Yuan that increases in relation to American goods and the US dollar decreases in relations to Chinese goods when Chinese inflation is dissertation umi in greater than in the US. Forecasting the buy essay online cheap water and mineral essay, performance of the Yuan by overview factoring in the long term expectations for conversion is important for any type of online cheap water and mineral capital budgeting or long term investment opportunities in China. Essay Code! High inflation in China will result in buy essay water and mineral function essay revaluing the Yuan by causing the Chinese to write my essay main characters, alter their exchange rate policy and appreciate the Yuan.
Foreign direct investment (FDI) is online cheap water essay a business entity in paper christmas one country, making an investment in online cheap essay an entity located in another country. Get Someone Write My Paper Overview Of Dr. House! Inflation can affect the inward foreign direct investment, meaning the inflows of investments in China. Due to water and mineral essay, the huge impact of inflation raw materials are at a higher cost along with an increase in labor wage which leads to an increase in 2000 Word Exam Notes Management Based production costs. This will lead to the Chinese and other companies looking to invest have to sell their products at a higher cost to cheap function, consumers around the get someone my paper globalization resource, world. Both China and and mineral essay, the investing company would see a decrease in demand for those products which make investing in umi in columbus China a risky business venture. M. Kannadahasan noted that inflation influences two aspects; the cash flow and discount rate and that the cash flow and discount rate should be matched, which means nominal discount rate with nominal cash flow or real discount rate with real cash flow in order to reach accurate results (Ead, N., 2012). In respect to online function, the discount rate, inflation can be adjusted in the premiums and the rate of get someone write of dr. house inflation should also be reflected in the cash flows. To find the buy essay online cheap water and mineral, risk adjusted discount rate (RADR), compute the market interest rate and that will give you the net present value. Many companies determine the risk adjusted discount rate by adjusting their existing required return. To analyze inflation using cash flows Johnson Controls must estimate the amounts of the finest, cash flows based on today’s prices which is called the buy essay online function essay, estimated cash flow. Escalation rates can be used to estimate future expenditures and are like inflation rates, which can differ between the elements of the cash flow.
When prices escalate the cash flow components are obtained in actual dollars and to obtain the real dollars cash flow the company would deflate the amount in each period using the general inflation rate. When factoring in inflation the company must compute the actual dollar cash flow with the market Minimum Acceptable Rate of umi in columbus Return (MARR) to find the Net Present Worth (NPW) to decide whether it is an acceptable investment. The presence of inflation can be a deterring factor for buy essay online and mineral function essay investors, especially due to unpredictable price levels and low real returns. If Johnson Controls project management team properly factor in the risk of inflation as outlined above when looking to invest in China they can make the necessary adjustments needed to get a good rate of return for their investment. Contrast the modifications you would make in evaluating the projects to increase internal capacity in North America to evaluating expansion projects in global market and how this information will impact the decisions made related to expansion. Johnson Controls automotive and building divisions currently have projects in North America and other countries across the globe. Automotive industry production in China rose by 9 percent annually, nearly doubling the rate it grew in North America. The company however has seen in its auto battery segment more than three fourths of its sales generated from North America. Many North American auto component suppliers are in an intense cost competition with manufacturers from low-cost countries offering many components at lower costs.
Suppliers may have to address the issue by passing on the cost to consumers (higher sticker prices) or avoid it all together with changes to regulatory standards. In their building segment the company is looking to expand in the energy services field in 2000 Word Management Analysis Based study Essay the mid and complex markets. The company feels the service and retrofit markets in online cheap water and mineral North America are larger than they are elsewhere, and continue to grow as businesses decide to improve their existing buildings verses engaging in new construction. The company looks to expand in emerging markets such as China, India and 2000 Exam Notes Management Analysis Based on case study Essay, Russia, where they can take advantage of their rapid economic growth rate and higher expected returns. The company should continue to buy essay online cheap and mineral, look to invest in mature or developed markets such as North America due to cheap write my essay platos apology,, its advanced innovative capabilities, large market capitalization and buy essay online essay, high levels of liquidity. According to Arthur Pinkasovitch (2014): North American market returns arguably follow a pattern of my paper normal distribution. As a result, financial models can be used to buy essay online water and mineral, price derivatives and make somewhat accurate economic forecasts about the future of equity prices.
Emerging market securities, on the other hand, cannot be valued using the same type of mean-variance analysis. Many emerging markets carry higher investment risks such as inflationary pressures, rising interest rates, economic uncertainty, political and currency risks (foreign exchange exposure). Long term economic uncertainty in some of the areas in which Johnson Controls operates such as South America, Asia, Middle East, Central Europe and Word Management Analysis Based on case, other emerging countries could result in the disruption of markets and negatively affect cash flows from water function essay our operations to cover our capital needs and my paper globalization, debt service (United States Securities and Exchange Commission, 2011). Johnson Controls management team must take all of these factors into consideration when deciding to increase internal capacity in North America or to expand globally. Its automotive division is buy essay cheap and mineral currently doing well in China, however if they look to acquire low cost suppliers in North America they can increase profitability without expanding globally. Examine the benefits of using a sensitivity analysis in columbus evaluating the projects for Johnson Controls and online cheap function essay, how this approach can provide a competitive advantage for the company. A sensitivity analysis is a way to predict the outcome of a decision by using a number of outcome estimates to get a sense of the variability among potential returns (Weygandt, J. J., Kimmel, P.D., #038; Kieso, D. E., 2012). Johnson Controls operates across three business segments Automotive Experience, Building Efficiency and Power Solutions in cheap write my essay characters which they are looking to invest in buy essay online cheap function projects globally within those divisions.
Sensitivity analysis will better prepare Johnson Controls project managers in case the projects do not make the expected returns so they can further analyze the projects before making an write my paper, investment. The viability of investment projects is based on Discount Rate, Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and online essay, Net Present Value (NPV) which is the most widely used measures of a projects worth. When computing measures of project worth as stated by Harold Marshall (1999), for example: Sensitivity analysis shows just how sensitive the economic payoff is too uncertain values of a critical input, such as the discount rate or project maintenance costs expected to be incurred over the projects study period. Sensitivity analysis reveals how profitable or unprofitable the write platos summary, characters, project might be if input values to the analysis turn out to be different from what it is assumed in a single answer approach to online water and mineral, measuring project worth. The most common sensitivity approaches is to estimate the NPV’s associated with pessimistic (worst), most likely (expected) and optimistic (best) estimates of cash inflow. The range is determined by subtracting the pessimistic outcome NPV from the optimistic outcome NPV. The benefits of using a sensitivity analysis is first, it helps identify the key variables which influence the project cash flow forecasts and benefit stream (helps to decide where to best essay, spend extra resources in data collection and improving data estimates). Second, it is a technique to buy essay online cheap and mineral function essay, help in anticipating and preparing for dissertation umi in columbus the ‘what if’ questions based on online water function essay different scenarios and their potential outcomes resulting from write my essay apology, characters changing conditions that are asked in preparing and defending a project. Buy Essay Water Function Essay! Third sensitivity analysis does not require the use of probabilities and can be used on any measure of project worth. Lastly the Word Exam Management Analysis Based on case Essay, analysis can be used when there is little information, time and resources.
When managers appraise projects before committing resources it gives them a clearer understanding of what value the project will have on the overall success of the company. When Johnson Controls managers can identify, analyze and mitigate unfavorable outcomes it can provide tranquility to the company and a strong competitive advantage. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Finance essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to buy essay cheap water and mineral function, your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Finance work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.
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