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benjis book reports WRITING BOOK REPORTS. It's likely that, whatever your educational goals, you will eventually write a book report. Need Help (mia)! Your instructor might call it a critique, or a summary/response paper, or a review. The two components these assignments have in common are summary and evaluation. Other TIP Sheets on related topics that might prove helpful in developing a book report, depending on the type of book and the specifics of your assignment, include the following: How to Write a Summary Writing About Non-Fiction Books Writing About Literature. Summary AND evaluation. The following example summarizes in two sentences the plot of Jurassic Park : Michael Crichton's Jurassic Park describes how millionaire tycoon John Hammond indulges his desire to create an island amusement park full of living dinosaurs. In spite of elaborate precautions to make the park safe, his animals run wild, killing and proposal service videos, maiming his employees, endangering the lives of his two visiting grandchildren, and finally escaping to mainland Costa Rica. On the other hand, a thesis statement for a book report reflects your evaluation of the work; I really, really liked it is inadequate.
Students sometimes hesitate to make judgments about literature, because they are uncertain what standards apply. It's not so difficult to evaluate a book in terms of story elements: character, setting, problem/solution, even organization. (See TIP Sheet Writing About Literature for ideas on how to handle these standard story elements.) Nevertheless, a good thesis statement should include your reflection on the ideas, purpose, and attitudes of the author as well. To develop an informed judgment about the work, start by asking yourself lots of questions (for more ideas, see Evaluation on the TIP Sheet Writing About Literature). Then choose your most promising area, the one about which you have something clear to say and need do my ecstasy, and serotonin, can easily find evidence from the book to illustrate. Develop this into phd thesis a thesis statement. For example, here is need help do my what one thesis statement might look like for my essay to the, Jurassic Park (notice how this thesis statement differs from the simple summary above): In Jurassic Park , Crichton seems to warn us chillingly that, in bioengineering as in need help the brain, chaos theory, the moment we most appear to proposal be in control of events is the exact moment control is do my essay ecstasy, the brain, and serotonin already irredeemably lost to us. To develop an informed judgment and a corresponding thesis statement about a book, brainstorm by answering questions such as the following: For what purpose did the author write this, and did he fulfill that purpose? What did the main character learn? Does this lesson reflect reality as you know it? Were the characters complex and believable? What do they reveal of the author? of human nature?
How well did the write my essay africa vs. an hymn to the evening, setting contribute to help essay ecstasy, (mia) the mood? How did setting affect character and on being brought to america vs. an hymn evening, plot development? The invisible author. Help Essay Ecstasy, The Brain, And Serotonin (mia)! Usually the author does not figure prominently in the story unless the dissertation, book is autobiographical. More often he is the invisible persona–invisible, yet not absent. Help The Brain,! The author leaves traces of himself throughout. Paradoxically, your understanding of the author depends on your deliberate. detachment from the story itself to ielts essay on genetic engineering discover those traces. Imagine standing very, very close to need and serotonin (mia) a large painting–inches away. Your focus is on blobs of color, but you are unable to identify the object represented. Can Money Essay Pdf Necessarily! When you move back a few steps and alter your focus, the blobs take on a recognizable form.
In the same way, you have to draw back from the story to discern the purpose, ideas , and attitudes of the author. No one goes to the trouble to need do my essay ecstasy, the brain, and serotonin write something without purpose. Sure, textbooks have purpose, but those who write fiction narratives have purpose, too. Essay On Genetic Engineering! Even fantasy writers have purpose. A book report should include your evaluation of need help do my essay and serotonin, whether the author succeeded in his purpose. Phd Thesis Defense Questions! The following writer has made a statement about the author's purpose: Crichton seems not so much to be warning us of the evils of help the brain,, scientific inquiry as begging us, in a very convincing way, to exercise collective moral restraint on scientific research. This writer would then go on to use quotations, examples, and evidence from the book to writing my research paper nafta show why she believes this is need help do my essay the brain, (mia) Crichton's purpose. Dissertation Service Videos! To identify and respond to the purpose of an author, try asking questions like these: Was the author's purpose to inform or simply entertain me? Did I learn something?
Was I entertained? Did I lose interest? If I lost interest, was this author, perhaps, writing to a different audience? Is the help essay and serotonin, author trying to proposal service videos persuade me to help do my ecstasy, the brain, and serotonin think or act in buy essay online cheap a particular way? About what issue? What point of view would he or she have me adopt? Was I convinced? The author's ideas may be stated by ecstasy, (mia) the author himself in writing my research nafta and globalization a foreword, or they may show up in the words of a narrator or a principal character. The character Ian Malcolm, for example, is a primary spokesman for Crichton's criticism of post-modern science. Malcolm's words, below, express one of the ideas Crichton wishes us to consider: I'll tell you the problem with engineers and scientists.
They are focused on whether they can do something. They never stop to ask if they should do something. On the other hand, a principal character may represent, rather than state, ideas. Help Do My Ecstasy, The Brain, And Serotonin! Hammond's visiting grandchildren, for example, might represent the oblivious, yet threatened, human populations of the mainland and writing my research nafta and globalization, the planet itself. When ideas are implied rather than stated, they are called themes. To discover and evaluate ideas in a book, try asking questions like the do my essay ecstasy,, following: What was the central problem in the book? Was it a personal, social, or moral problem? Does it relate to life as you know it? What ideas(s) about defense, life and society does the author seem to hold? What did the principal character(s) learn?
How did they change? What does this seem to say about people? About society? About morality? Once you have identified what ideas an ecstasy, the brain, author is buy happiness trying to examine, you must still determine what the author's attitude is toward those ideas. Need Do My Essay Ecstasy,! An author's attitudes are revealed in part by the tone, or overall mood, of the work. Dissertation Proposal Service Videos! In writing, as in conversation, tone is need ecstasy, not so much stated as implied. In reading we depend solely on the emotional overtones of the words to infer the attitudes of the author.
For example, suppose you have determined that Crichton wishes to explore the idea of how private industry exploits scientific research. You must then determine, as well, what Crichton's attitude is toward this situation. Does he think this is a positive development, or a negative one, or a little of both? Does he think it is inevitable, or preventable? One way to figure out Crichton's attitude about this is to identify the tone he uses to tell the story. We describe the tone of can money buy happiness pdf necessarily, a book with adjectives, and need help essay ecstasy, and serotonin, more than one if necessary: straightforward, complex, ironic, creepy, pathetic, bitter, comic, tragic. For example, here is a statement using three different adjectives to describe Crichton's attitude toward one of the central problems in Jurassic Park : Crichton strikes an ominous tone in Jurassic Park. Even though this is a cautionary tale, the author nevertheless is optimistic that the mainstream scientific community, represented in this story by proposal service videos Alan Grant, can learn restraint and respect for essay and serotonin, nature. (When identifying the write brought africa to the evening, tone of a book, make the effort to distinguish an individual. character's attitude from the need do my essay ecstasy, the brain,, author's overall attitude-they may differ.) To begin talking about tone, ask yourself questions such as these: Is there a particular setting or scene that stands out in my mind?
What was the mood of that scene? Is this mood indicative of the dissertation proposal videos, entire book? Is the author an optimist, a pessimist, or a realist? How does he show it? Does a principal character experience one persistent state of mind or emotion? What would I call it? Is it indicative of the essay the brain,, work overall?
Did the mood of the work help or hinder my understanding of the author's ideas? Butte College | 3536 Butte Campus Drive, Oroville CA 95965 | General Information (530) 895-2511.
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Enrolling in yoga teacher training or taking painting classes one night a week can give you an idea of the lifestyle. You can build contacts and skills to leave prepared, or discover that dabbling at night can quench your thirst. The alcohol-soaked scenes and three-martini lunches play as integral a role in Mad Men . Characters often drink at work, sipping on scotch all day long, and client dinners usually turn into buy essay resume of career debaucheries. Mad moral : Alcohol can be a double-edged sword at work-related social events, Powers says. It's a social lubricant, but it can also cause people to need help do my (mia) reveal too much.
It's fine to have one or two drinks at a cocktail function, but decide your limit ahead of time. Buy Essay Online Cheap Of Career. To watch your intake, keep the straw or little sword that comes in your drink in your pocket, he suggests. Once you hit your limit, switch to water. Also remember that work rules still apply, even at happy hour, Bruzzese adds. When you're out with people from work—no matter how much you feel like they're buddies—you should never say anything you wouldn't say in front of the boss.
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Many developing countries often fear FDI as a modern form of on genetic, economic colonialism and exploitation, similar to their previous unpleasant experiences with colonial powers. Yet, FDI flows are generally preferred to other forms of external finance because these are non-debt creating, non-volatile, and the returns depend on the performance of the need help the brain, (mia), project financed by the investors. FDI is can money buy happiness pdf necessarily, considered superior to other types of capital flows due to various reasons: i. Firms entering a host country through FDI have a long-term perspective in contrast to foreign lenders and portfolio investors. Therefore, FDI flows are less volatile and easier to sustain at the time of economic crisis. ii. Need Do My And Serotonin? Debt inflows may finance consumption whereas FDI is my research paper nafta and globalization, more likely to be used to improve productivity. iii. Since FDI provides more than just capital by need help essay the brain, and serotonin, offering access to internationally available technologies, management know-how, and marketing skills, it is likely to have a strong impact on economic growth. A firm has to evaluate various options to cater to foreign markets and select the most appropriate mode of international business expansion.
Geographical distances of phd thesis, markets or resources, especially for low-value products, make it more attractive to get into manufacturing operations overseas. In addition, the firm has to carry out a risk benefit analysis of need ecstasy, (mia), licensing vis-a-vis ownership for cheap, its international operations. A foreign firm investing in India should understand the institutional and regulatory framework for investment promotion in India. In simple terms, FDI means acquiring ownership in an overseas business entity. Help Essay The Brain, And Serotonin? It is the movement of essay pdf necessarily, capital across national frontiers, which gives the investor control over the assets acquired. FDI occurs when an investor based in one country (the home country) acquires an asset in need help ecstasy, and serotonin, another country (the host country) with the intent to manage it.
It is the can money buy happiness, management dimension that distinguishes FDI from portfolio investment in need help essay and serotonin (mia), foreign stocks and other financial instruments. Conceptually, a firm becomes a multinational corporation (MNC) by way of phd thesis, FDI as its operations extend to multiple countries. FDI is defined as an investment involving a long-term relationship and need essay ecstasy, and serotonin (mia), reflecting a lasting interest and control by a resident enterprise (foreign direct investor or parent enterprise) in one economy in cheap on being from to america, an enterprise (FDI enterprise or affiliate enterprise or foreign affiliate) resident in an economy other than that of the foreign direct investor.’ For acquiring substantial controlling interest, generally 10 per cent or more equity is to be acquired in the foreign firm. The ‘lasting interest’ implies the existence of a long- term relationship between the direct investor and the enterprise wherein a significant degree of do my the brain, and serotonin (mia), influence is exerted by the investor in the management of the direct investment enterprise. Direct investment enterprise refers to an incorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor owns 10 per writing paper nafta, cent or more of the need help do my ecstasy, the brain,, ordinary shares of voting power or an unincorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor has equivalent ownership. Ownership of my research, 10 per cent of the ordinary shares or voting stock is the criterion for determining the existence of a direct investment relationship. These are either directly or indirectly owned by the direct investor. The definition of direct investment enterprise extends to the branches and subsidiaries of the direct investor. FDI is characterized by decreased sensitivity to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. Since FDI is the need help do my ecstasy, the brain, and serotonin, result of a long-term perspective by the investor, it is cheap my essay on being brought africa to america vs. an hymn to the evening, much less volatile than foreign portfolio investment.
It has been reported that most FDI (i.e., more than 90%) leads to intra-corporate trade at international level. The returns of FDI are generally in form of profit, i.e., retained earnings, profits, dividends, royalty payments, management fees, etc. Essay # 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI : Foreign portfolio investment (FPI) is defined as an investment by individuals, firms, or a public body in foreign financial instruments, such as foreign stocks, government bonds, etc. In FPl, the do my essay the brain,, equity stake in dissertation proposal service videos, the foreign business entity is not significant enough to need help essay the brain,, exert any management control. Thus, FPI is the phd thesis defense, passive holding of securities and other financial assets by a foreign firm, which does not entail management control of the issuing firm.
High rate of returns and need help essay the brain, and serotonin (mia), mitigation of risks due to geographical diversification positively influence FPL Thus, FPI is passive whereas FDI is active. The returns in the case of FPI are generally in cheap write africa to america hymn, the form of non-voting dividends or interest payments. Portfolio investment, like FDI, is part of the capital account of need ecstasy, the brain, and serotonin, balance of payment (BoP) statistics. It is important to understand why a firm takes a decision to invest in foreign countries when low-risk alternatives to cater to foreign markets, such as exporting and licensing, are already available. As the firm invests its own resources in a foreign country, the firm is exposed to greater risks. Major factors that influence a firm’s decision to invest in foreign markets are discussed. Higher costs of transportation between the production facilities and geographically distant markets make it economically unviable for firms to compete or enter such markets. Substantial costs of transportation have to be incurred for can money buy happiness, marketing products in countries located at larger geographical distances.
For a product with low unit value, i.e., value to weight ratio, such as steel, fast food, cement, etc., the cost of transportation has much larger impact on help do my essay the brain, its competitiveness in foreign markets compared to a high-unit value product, such as watches, jewellery, computer processors, hard-disks, etc. Therefore, for low-unit value products, it becomes more attractive to manufacture the products in the foreign country itself either by way of licensing or FDI. Liability of ielts on genetic, foreignness : A firm’s unfamiliarity with the host country and help essay ecstasy, (mia), lack of adaptation of business practices in phd thesis defense, a foreign country often result in a competitive disadvantage vis-a-vis indigenous firms. This adds to the cost of doing business abroad, which is termed as liability of foreignness’. For instance, Kellogg’s unfamiliarity with Indian breakfast habits led to faulty positioning of its cornflakes as a substitute to the traditional Indian breakfast and has been a classic marketing blunder. It took several years for Kellogg’s to understand the centrality of its traditional food in India’s lifestyle before repositioning its cornflakes as a complementary rather than a substitute to the Indian breakfast.
In another instance, Disneyland failed miserably in its French venture primarily due to lack of product adaptation in help do my essay and serotonin, view of my research paper nafta and globalization, significant differences in customers’ preferences in Europe vis-a-vis the US market. It has to essay, arrive at a trade-off between scale benefits from concentrating production at a single location and exporting or benefits of FDI, such as proximity of production locations, higher level of control, and gaining better access to the market. Potential benefits of my research nafta and globalization, FDI to host countries include the following: Access to superior technology: Foreign firms bring superior technology to the host countries while investing. The extent of benefits depends upon the technology spill-over to other firms based in the host country. The investing foreign firm increases industry output, resulting in help do my essay ecstasy, and serotonin (mia), overall reduction in domestic prices, improved product or services quality, and greater availability. This intensifies competition in host economies, resulting in net improvement in consumer welfare. Increase in domestic investment: It is found that capital inflows in buy essay resume, the form of FDI increase domestic investment so as to survive and effectively respond to the increased competition.
Bridging host countries foreign exchange gaps: In most developing countries, the levels of need do my essay ecstasy, the brain,, domestic savings are often insufficient to support capital accumulation to achieve growth targets. Besides, the buy essay of career, level of foreign exchange may be insufficient to purchase imported inputs. Under such situations, the need essay ecstasy, the brain, and serotonin, FDI helps in making available foreign exchange for imports. Essay # 6. Selection of FDI Destinations : A firm has to evaluate various countries as investment destinations and writing my research paper nafta and globalization, select the most appropriate one for investment. Briefly, the factors influencing net profit of an MNE’s operations in need help essay (mia), a host country include the following: Cost of capital input: Cost includes interest rate and financial capital employed for setting up of plant or the rent. Wage rate is highly significant for buy happiness, the manufacture of labour-intensive products. The prevailing taxation rates of the host country are of prime importance while making an investment decision.
A large number of countries provide tax holidays to foreign companies in order to attract FDI. Costs of inputs: The costs of inputs in do my essay ecstasy, the brain,, the host country, such as raw material, intermediate products, etc. influences the production cost which in turn influences the investment decision. Cost of logistics: Logistics, including availability of various modes of transport, and service, the cost of transportation, influence the FDI decision. Demand of a product in the host country market, including consumer preferences and their income levels, significantly affects the help do my ecstasy, the brain, and serotonin, investment decisions.
In terms of ‘most attractive’ global FDI locations, four of the top five countries, as ranked by can money buy happiness pdf necessarily, trans-national corporations TNCs are surprisingly, countries from developing economies. China is do my essay ecstasy, and serotonin, considered the most attractive investment location by 52 per cent of respondents followed by India with 41 per cent (Fig. 12.1). India’s high ranking is considered to be even more remarkable given the fact that FDI inflows to India have been modest until recently. Cheap My Essay On Being Brought To America Vs. An Hymn Evening? The US is the only developed country in the top five investment locations. Although, Germany, UK, and Australia could make it into the top 10, traditionally important FDI destinations, such as Canada, France, the Netherlands, and Italy were not included. This implies that TNCs expect investors to help and serotonin (mia), move away from established FDI locations, which often have saturated markets and high production costs, towards emerging economies that are often more dynamic. The overall trend in FDI inflows in recent years in developing countries is taking the lead in essay on genetic, global FDI recovery. As indicated in Exhibit 12.1, India has emerged as a hot investment destination.
Leading global firms from a variety of industrial sectors, including IT, telecom, and automobile have not only made substantial investment in do my ecstasy, (mia), India but also plan to commit significant resources in the future too. Essay # 7. Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): In most countries, public opinion towards foreign enterprises is not very favourable and FDI is feared due to its impact on domestic firms, the economy, and culture. The major concerns about the negative aspects of can money pdf necessarily, FDI are as follows: Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are far more advanced than domestic companies, owing to their large size and need help do my essay (mia), financial power. In some sectors, this is leading to MNE monopolies, thus impeding the phd thesis defense, entry of domestic enterprises and harming consumers. MNEs’ ability to need essay ecstasy, and serotonin (mia), operate at a large scale and invest heavily in marketing and advertising and ielts essay, RD activities differentiate their products and makes entry of new firms far more difficult as they are unable to make similar investments in help do my essay ecstasy, the brain, (mia), RD and dissertation videos, marketing strategies. (ii) Crowding-out and need essay and serotonin (mia), unemployment effects: FDI tends to discourage entry and stimulates exit of domestic entrepreneurs, often termed as the crowding-out effect. As FDI enterprises are often less labour intensive, their entry results in higher unemployment and increased social instability. MNEs often function in can money buy happiness, a way that doesn’t result in technology- sharing or technology-transfer, thereby making local firms technologically dependent or technologically less self-reliant.
Foreign investors import their inputs and use the need help do my ecstasy, and serotonin, host country as a processing base, with little value-added earnings in the host country. A large proportion of of career, their profits may be repatriated. Large foreign investors often bribe government officials and distort market forces. With MNEs holding a dominant position in sensitive industries, such as telecommunications, and the supply of help do my and serotonin, core equipment and software for the information technology (IT) industry, there is buy happiness essay pdf necessarily, a danger that the need help do my and serotonin (mia), strategic interests of the host country may be compromised. Essay # 8. My Research Paper? Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI):
Foreign direct investment may be classified under various heads depending upon need do my ecstasy, the brain, and serotonin (mia), the criteria used. Major types of FDI are discussed here: (i) On the Basis of Direction of Investment: Foreign firms taking control over domestic assets is termed as inward FDI. From an proposal service videos Indian perspective, direct investments made by foreign firms, such as Suzuki, Honda, LG, Samsung, General Motors, Electrolux, etc., in India are examples of inward FDI. Domestic firms investing overseas and taking control over foreign assets is known as outward FDI. Help Essay Ecstasy, The Brain, And Serotonin (mia)? Such outward FDI is also known as Direct Investment Abroad (DIA). From the Indian point of view, direct investments overseas by Indian firms, such as Tata Motors, Infosys, Videocon, ONGC, Ranbaxy, etc., are illustrations of outward FDI. (ii) On the Basis of Types of Activity: When a firm invests in a foreign country in similar production activity as carried out in buy happiness essay, home country, it is termed as horizontal FDI. Need Help Do My Essay Ecstasy, And Serotonin (mia)? Thus, horizontal FDI occurs when the multinational undertakes the same production activities in multiple countries. Horizontal FDI enables the phd thesis questions, investing firm to exploit its competitive advantage in the host country.
Multinational firms from both developed and developing countries use horizontal FDI to need help do my essay ecstasy,, establish their competitive advantage abroad. A number of MNEs, such as Coke, Pepsi, Kodak, HSBC, LG, Samsung, etc., expanded internationally by way of horizontal FDI. Direct investment in writing my research, industries abroad so as to either provide inputs for need do my the brain, (mia), the firm’s domestic operations or sell its domestic outputs overseas is termed as vertical FDI. Thus, vertical FDI takes place when the multinational fragments the production process internationally, locating each stage of production in the country where it can be done at the least cost. A firm gains control over various stages of the value chain from sourcing raw materials to manufacturing and to marketing.
The MNEs fragment their production activities geographically on the basis of factor intensities in vertical FDI. Backward vertical FDI: Direct investment overseas aimed at providing inputs for the firm’s production processes in the home country is termed as backward vertical FDI (Exhibit 12.2). Such FDI is buy essay online resume of career, historically common in extractive industries, such as mining (gold, copper, tin, bauxite mining, and petroleum extraction). Do My Essay? Companies like British Petroleum and Shell have expanded their international business by backward vertical FDI.
Forward vertical FDI: Direct investment in a foreign country aimed to sell the output of the firm’s domestic production processes is referred to as forward vertical FDI. Essay? Setting up a marketing network, assembly, or mixing operations overseas are illustrations of forward vertical FDI. Direct investment overseas aimed at manufacturing products not manufactured by the firm in the home country is termed as conglomerate FDI. (iii) On the Basis of Investment Objectives: In order to gain privileged access to resources vis-a-vis competitors, MNEs invest in countries with availability of natural resources. Help Essay? This ensures the MNE of my essay on being africa to america vs. an, stability of raw material supply at right prices. The major economic determinants for resource seeking FDI include: i. Availability of raw material. ii.
Complementary factors of production. iii. Physical infrastructure. When resource-abundant countries lack capital and necessary technical skills for resource extractions, such FDI is favored. When host countries are no longer constrained with the availability of capital and technical skills and are able to set up competitive indigenous enterprises, FDI gives way to non-equity arrangements and need help do my essay ecstasy, and serotonin, arm’s-length trade relations. Historically, resource-seeking FDI has been very important but its significance has declined considerably over time.
However, resource-seeking FDI still remains extremely important for investing in developing countries. Such types of MNEs are common in sectors, such as oil, agro-processing, metals like steel, copper, bauxite, etc. Moreover, resource-seeking FDI is also preferred for production of labour-intensive goods. Can Money? For instance, naturally occurring soda ash in Kenya reduces the cost of production by half for chemical industries. Cheap gas in Trinidad and Tobago considerably brings down the cost of steel production. Morocco is an investment destination for Tata Chemicals because the country holds 60 per cent of the world’s phosphate resources.
MNEs invest in countries with sizeable market and growth opportunities in order to protect existing markets, counteract competitors, and to preclude rivals or potential rivals from help do my essay (mia) gaining new markets. Investing in other countries helps the investing firm to dissertation videos, reduce transaction costs, improve buyer understanding by bringing it closer to the target markets, and need help ecstasy, the brain, and serotonin, overcome a number of regulatory controls in the host country. The major economic determinants of market-seeking FDI include: ii. Market growth. iii.
Regional integration. Market-seeking FDI are often favoured by MNEs in a large number of durable and buy essay online of career, non-durable consumer goods, such as automobiles, computers, processed foods, cigarettes, etc. A firm may strategically opt for efficiency-seeking FDI as a part of regional or global product rationalization and/or to gain advantages of process specialization. Efficiency-seeking FDI provides the investing firm not only access to help essay ecstasy, the brain, (mia), markets but also economies of scope, geographical diversification, and international sourcing of inputs. The major economic determinants of efficiency seeking FDI include: i. Productivity adjusted labour costs. ii.
Availability of skilled labour. iii. Availability of business related services. iv. Trade policy.
Efficiency-seeking FDI are often favoured in product categories, such as motor vehicles, electrical appliances, business services, etc., besides, in process involving production of consumer electronics, textiles and clothing, and online cheap resume, pharmaceuticals. On the basis of entry modes, foreign direct investment may be of the need do my ecstasy, and serotonin (mia), following two types: Investing in creation of new facilities or expansion of existing facilities is my research, termed as Greenfield investment. And Serotonin? Firms often enter international markets by way of Greenfield investments in industries where technological skills and production technology are the phd thesis defense, key. Further, the selection of FDI mode is influenced by: i. Institutional factors. ii. Cultural factors. iii.
Transactional cost factors. Particularly, the attitude towards takeovers, conditions in capital markets, liberalization policies, privatization, regional integration, current sales, and the role played by intermediaries, such as investment bankers affect the mode of direct investment abroad. Investment promotion by host countries aims at investment in new greenfield ventures as it is do my essay ecstasy, the brain, and serotonin (mia), viewed to generate economic benefits. In developing countries where the right types of companies are not available for acquisition, Greenfield operations are the preferred mode of paper and globalization, FDI. Mergers and acquisitions : For establishing overseas production facilities, mergers and need essay ecstasy, (mia), acquisitions (MAs) are crucial tools for a firm’s internationalization strategy. Dissertation Videos? MAs have become an increasingly popular mode of need help, investment among firms worldwide in order to enhance their competitiveness so as to consolidate, protect, and advance their position by acquiring companies internationally. It is estimated that about 70-80 per cent of FDI are in the form of MAs. In developed countries with large number of competing firms, MAs serve as principal source of FDI. However, an MNE has to make Greenfield investments in paper and globalization, developing and least developed countries where the right type of target firms are not available for acquisition. The value of India’s total cross-border deals, both inbound and outbound, increased significantly by need help do my ecstasy,, 409 per dissertation, cent from need help essay ecstasy, (mia) US$9.5 billion in 2005 to US$48 billion in 2007 but declined to US$25.63 billion in 2008. The value of inbound deals increased by 200 per cent from US$5.1 billion in 2005 to US$15.5 billion in write on being from africa evening, 2007 whereas the outbound deals during the need help essay ecstasy, and serotonin (mia), same period increased rapidly by 662 per questions, cent from US$4.3 billion to US$32.8 billion.
However, both inbound and outbound deals declined^ to US$12.48 billion and US$13.15 billion, respectively in 2008. The major foreign MNEs acquiring Indian firms during 2005 to help ecstasy, the brain, (mia), 2007 included Vodafone, Maxis Communication and can money pdf necessarily, Apollo, Vendanta Resources, Mylan Laboratories, Mittal Investments, Citigroup, Oracle, Holcim and Matsushita Electric Works Ltd (Table 12.1) whereas major overseas acquisitions by Indian firms included that of need help essay, Tata Steel, Hindalco, Suzlon, Essar Steel Holdings, Great Offshore, United Spirits, Tata Power, Tata Chemicals, J SW Steel Limited, Wipro Technologies, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, and Suzlon Energy (Table 12.2). The most attractive returns from mergers occur where scale economies can be achieved, which means essentially buying consolidation among peer companies. India is likely to witness a relatively large volume of horizontal combinations where companies buy their peers. An acquisition may be termed as a ‘hostile takeover’ when it is resisted by the target firm’s management and board of can money buy happiness pdf necessarily, directors. Such takeover attempts are strongly resisted by the target firm. In order to prevent the need help essay and serotonin, acquiring firm from such takeovers the target firm often resorts to use of ‘poison pills’ by cheap resume of career, increasing the cost of do my the brain, and serotonin, negative items as a strategic option, as discussed in Exhibit 12.3. However, the acquiring firm may raise the attractiveness of service, its offer, through a ‘sweetener’ to effectively counter the target firm’s resistance. Investment by foreign firms in the manufacturing sector is termed as industrial FDI. Major objectives of FDI in do my the brain, and serotonin, the manufacturing sector include: i. To achieve cost efficiencies by way of taking advantage of availability of raw material inputs and manpower at cheaper costs.
Savings in costs of logistics due to proximity to inputs, markets, or both, results into cost reduction. ii. To bypass trade barriers such as high import tariffs and phd thesis, other import restrictions. iii. To be closer to the markets and serve them more efficiently. iv. To have physical presence due to need ecstasy, (mia), strategic reasons.
Investment by a foreign firm in services sector is buy essay online resume of career, termed as non-industrial FDI. The major reasons for non-industrial FDI are: i. As services are non-tradable, FDI becomes a strategic option to enter international markets. ii. To overcome regulatory obstacles. iii. To create regular contact with the customer.
(vi) On the Basis of Strategic Modes: In response to trade barriers of the host country, such as import restrictions and prohibitive tariff structure, FDI is made a substitute for exports. It is aimed to serve the target market and its surroundings effectively. Entry mode for such types of do my essay the brain, (mia), FDI is typically through MAs. Countries with high per capita income are generally targeted for writing and globalization, export replacement FDI. In order to and serotonin, minimize a firm’s cost of production and write my essay on being brought from africa vs. an to the evening, distribution, FDI is made so as to utilize the target country to serve the global markets. The competitive advantage and the incentives offered by the host country plays a crucial role in attracting such FDI.
Greenfield investment is often the mode of entry in such target markets as these have relatively low per capita income. Firms invest in foreign countries so as to use the target as a base to essay ecstasy,, serve investors’ home country. Cheap Write On Being Africa Vs. An To The? The basic objective of firms in this kind of FDI is to obtain cheap inputs to support home production. Bilateral trade agreements play an need do my essay ecstasy, important role in cheap write my essay on being from to america vs. an hymn, FDIs to promote substitutions. Firms generally target countries with middle to high per capita income, using the Greenfield operations as the entry mode. Essay # 9. Theories of Foreign Direct Investment: Most trade theories fail to explain why a firm invests in foreign countries in unfamiliar environments, making its operations much more complex, difficult to manage and, therefore, running additional risks. An FDI theory should help one conceptualize answers to need help essay ecstasy, the brain, and serotonin, typical ‘W and ‘H’ questions such as: Who is the investor?
A domestic or a foreign investor, an established multinational company, or a little known new firm. What kind of investment is to be made? Whether it is Greenfield or merger or acquisition? Whether the investment is first-time or sequential? Why should the firm go abroad? Reasons for internationalization, such as scale or scope economies, cost reduction, increased profitability, or strategic reasons for making the investment. The firm has to carry out analysis of resume of career, socio-cultural, political, and economic factors before deciding upon the selection of host country for investment. The timing of investment decisions in the brain, (mia), view of defense questions, product lifecycle stages, maturity of the market, and firm’s resource availability. How to internationalize?
In view of need help do my essay ecstasy, the brain, and serotonin (mia), various modes of international business expansion, the firm has to select the best suited entry mode. Principal theories of international investment that address one or more of these issues are discussed here. The earlier theories were based on the belief that FDI takes place due to differences in the rates of return on capital across countries. Capital is my research paper nafta and globalization, likely to be attracted to markets that offer higher returns as long as there are differences in interest rates or prices between markets. These theories were based on the assumption that markets were perfectly competitive and firms invest overseas as a form of factor movement to benefit from differential profits. The theory of capital arbitrage is more suitable for foreign portfolio investments where the returns on capital are crucial in help the brain, (mia), the short term. A firm has long-term interest in FDI, a variety of cheap write my essay on being brought to america to the, multiple factors influence the need do my ecstasy, and serotonin (mia), investment decision, besides higher rate of return. Therefore, the scope of capital arbitrage theory is limited to providing a broad explanation of writing my research nafta and globalization, FDI. Factors that inhibit markets from working perfectly are known as market imperfections.
Government policies, including import restrictions and quotas, incentives on exports and FDI, tax regimes, restrictions on FDI, and help do my essay ecstasy, the brain, (mia), government’s participation in trade are some of the examples of government intervention that create market imperfections. The basic objective of such restrictive measures is to promote a country’s industrial development and manage the balance of trade. Can Money Buy Happiness? Most developing countries often practice the import substitution strategy by do my essay ecstasy, and serotonin (mia), restricting imports and promoting domestic production of less competitive indigenous firms. However, developed countries are in no way behind in protecting their domestic industries by providing huge subsidies and incentives to domestic producers, besides using a variety of ever-evolving non- tariff barriers to restrict entry to their markets. A combination of all these factors contributes to imperfections in the international markets.
Such market imperfections make exporting both restrictive and expensive. In order to access restrictive markets with market imperfections, FDI is often employed as a strategic tool for international business expansion. FDI effectively bypasses the trade restrictions, such as prohibitive import tariffs and quotas. MNEs tend to exploit market imperfections created by the host country governments by direct investment overseas. Such protectionist measures decreased profitability of exporting automobiles from Japan to Europe and increased profitability of FDI to cater to the market. This explains establishment of manufacturing operations by Japanese automobile majors in Europe and the US. It is important to essay on genetic engineering, understand that it is the mobility of capital and immobility of low- cost labour that makes FDI a preferred tool to access foreign markets. Firms often take advantage of market imperfections, such as economies of scale and scope, cost advantages, product differentiations, technical, managerial or marketing know-how, financial strengths, etc., by way of investing abroad. A firm expands internationally in order to exploit its specific advantage or core competence in foreign markets. When the know-how, technology, skills, or trade secrets available with the firm are crucial to a firm’s competitive advantage, it needs to protect such knowledge base within the organization.
Since arm’s-length collaborative strategies, such as management contract and licensing do not provide complete protection to help essay ecstasy, and serotonin, the specific know-how possessed by the firm, internalization is online cheap of career, often preferred so that trade secrets remain within the organization. Therefore, a firm expands into international markets by way of investing in a foreign country in order to have control over its overseas operations. An MNE is believed to possess monopolistic advantage, which enables it to operate overseas more profitably and compete with local firms. The benefit possessed by help do my essay, the firm that maintains its monopolistic power in the market is ielts engineering, termed as monopolistic advantage. For a firm to invest in help ecstasy, (mia), physical resources overseas, the following conditions are required: i. The firm should have some additional advantage that outweighs the cost of operating in a foreign country and exposing itself to an alien business environment. ii. The firm can exploit such specific advantage only through control of foreign operations by ownership rather than other low-risk means of phd thesis questions, market access requiring less commitment of help do my ecstasy, and serotonin (mia), resources such as exporting and licensing. Such an advantage specific to my research nafta and globalization, the investing firm is also known as firm specific advantage (FSA). It is the monopolistic advantages such as ‘superior knowledge’ and ‘economies of scale’ not possessed by competing firms that justify investment in physical capital overseas.
(v) International Product Life Cycle Theory : The international product life cycle (IPLC) theory developed by Raymond Vernon provides an help (mia) explanation as to why production locations are shifted across countries. Although the theory was developed in the American context, it can be extended to other countries too. A firm gains monopolistic advantage by innovation of a product or process technology and ielts essay, markets the product domestically or in overseas markets through exports. The product is initially manufactured in the country of innovation even though the need help ecstasy,, cost of production in other countries may be lower. Subsequently, in the growth phase of the product life cycle, when the product becomes standardized, the innovating firm takes advantage of lower cost of manufacturing abroad, and starts investing in other countries to create its own manufacturing facilities. The theory suggests that an MNE prefers those countries for investment as manufacturing locations that have market size large enough to support local production. In the growth phase of product life cycle, the cheap my essay brought from africa to america vs. an to the evening, FDI is made to other high income countries to shift production with sizeable market. In the maturity stage, technology becomes available to the competitors, the competition intensifies, and the innovating firm shifts production from the country of initial FDI to other lower-cost locations. As a result, the products manufactured in overseas locations become more cost-competitive vis-a-vis those manufactured in the home country and the foreign-based subsidiaries become not only need help do my essay more competitive to serve overseas markets but their production is can money pdf necessarily, also imported into the innovating country even to serve its domestic market. IPLC theory is valid for both trade and investment and provides a dependable explanation about trade patterns and investment. Need Ecstasy, The Brain, And Serotonin? The theory explains why firms undertake FDI in countries with low production costs and considerable demand to support local production.
However, the pdf necessarily, IPLC theory does not touch upon the reasons for undertaking international investment rather than exporting or licensing, which are low cost alternatives for international business expansion. The theory applies mainly to industrial FDI in manufacturing sector. It is generally relevant to large firms with innovating capabilities. The IPLC theory ignores revenue as it is too cost-oriented. Further, it does not discuss opportunities when FDI is the brain, (mia), more profitable. The eclectic theory (OLI Paradigm) is a blend of macroeconomic theory of international trade (L) and micro-economic theories of the firm (O I). As suggested by the eclectic theory, the extent and ielts, pattern of FDI are determined by a combination of three factors as discussed here.
For the investing firm to be profitable overseas, it needs to possess some core competencies or specific advantages not shared by its competitors. Such advantages, internal to a specific firm, are termed as FSAs or ownership (O) factor. Such advantages should enable the firm either to have a lower marginal cost or higher marginal returns vis-a-vis its competitors so as to enable it to need help do my ecstasy, and serotonin, reap more profits from overseas investment. An MNE possesses firm-specific advantages, such as: i. Intangible assets, such as technology, knowledge, information and specific entrepreneurial, technical, managerial, and marketing skills. ii. Tangible assets, such as natural resources, capital, and manpower. iii. Of Career? Size economy Due to large size of MNEs they often enjoy economies of need help do my essay (mia), scale and phd thesis questions, scope, access to finance within the MNE, benefits emanating from diversification of assets and risks spread. iv. Monopolistic advantage An MNE may benefit from its monopolistic ownership of scarce natural endowments, privileged access to raw materials, ownership of need do my and serotonin (mia), patent rights, and other inputs.
Since an MNE is required to online cheap resume of career, have its operations in foreign countries, it has to incur additional costs due to: i. Psychic distance because of differences in socio-cultural environment of the help ecstasy, the brain, and serotonin (mia), host country. ii. Unfamiliarity with the host country’s market conditions. iii. Differences in legal, political, economic environment, and dissertation service, institutional framework. iv. Increased expenses of operation and communication in a foreign country due to geographical difference. As the indigenous firm in the host country is need, not required to incur the above costs, the ‘costs of foreignness’ are specific to foreign firms.
Therefore, in order to operate profitably and to remain in a foreign market, an MNE has to poises firm-specific advantages that either lower its operational costs or earn higher revenue. The locational (L) advantage or factor of a host country is the key determinant to its relative attractiveness as an investment destination. The major country-specific advantages can be as follows: Availability of factor endowments, availability of raw materials and other inputs, productivity and costs of inputs, market size and its growth, cost of logistics, efficacy, and cost of communication channels. Familiarity of operational environment, socio-cultural similarity, language, low psychic distance between the firm’s home country and the host country. The host country government’s attitudes and policies towards foreign firms and investment, incentives to promote FDI, continuity of economic policies, and the stability of the write brought to america to the, government. An MNE would, therefore, typically prefer countries with large market size and high rate of market growth, adequate and do my essay ecstasy, (mia), low cost availability of raw material, inputs and manpower, socio-cultural proximity, economic and political stability. The internalization factor : The internalization (I) factor explains the entry mode used by an MNE to buy happiness, access international markets. The core competencies or specific knowledge and know-how possessed by the firm form the basis of help ecstasy, and serotonin, economic gains. A firm may transfer its know- how to an unrelated firm in a foreign country by way of licensing and thus earn profits. A firm attempts to internalize its operations: i. On Genetic Engineering? To protect its proprietary knowledge from competitors.
ii. To create and maintain monopolistic or oligopolistic power in need do my essay ecstasy, (mia), the market by placing entry barriers to its competitors, forming cartels, predatory pricing, cross- subsidizing among its international operations, etc. iii. To protect itself against defense questions market uncertainties. Thus, the internalization advantages explain why an MNE opts for wholly owned subsidiaries rather than licensing or minority ownership for accessing foreign markets. Need Help Essay (mia)? Internalization helps a firm lessen the incidences of market failure. The eclectic framework distinguishes between two types of market failures:
Endemic market failure: Such market failure occurs due to natural market imperfections, such as unfamiliarity with markets or lack of market knowledge, the incidence of transaction costs in external markets, interdependence on demand and supply, uncertainty and risks, etc. Structural market failure: Endogenous market imperfections created by an MNE so as to buy essay of career, exploit its oligopolistic power are termed as structural market failures. MNEs are often involved in creating entry barriers for competitors, abusing their bargaining power due to their sheer size and financial strength, cross-subsidization, predatory pricing, and price discrimination. Besides, MNEs indulge in arbitraging government-imposed market regulations, such as tariffs and non-tariff barriers, differentiation in taxation regimes, etc., that create exogenous market imperfections. MNEs are often criticized for adopting unfair practices, such as transfer pricing and ecstasy,, under-invoicing, through their affiliates for their own advantage so as to bypass high tariffs and the taxation differences among various countries. Thus, MNEs effectively arbitrage structural market imperfections through internalization, accumulating tariff and after-tax profits much higher than those of unrelated firms engaged in arm’s-length transactions. While enjoying these benefits of buy essay cheap resume of career, internalization, an MNE has to incur various costs too—those of running large-scale vertically and horizontally integrated international businesses. The MNE is required to expend huge amount of financial resources in managing the mammoth organization spread across many countries, often known as governance cost.
Multinational firms are often required to invest substantial resources in acquiring know-how or technological competence while entering into unrelated lines of business. The eclectic theory provides the essay and serotonin (mia), most comprehensive explanation of FDI, integrating firm-specific (O), location-specific (L), and internalization (I) advantages. It logically examines the reasons for investing overseas, the selection of on being from to america vs. an hymn to the, country location for do my (mia), investment, and the cost-benefit analysis for selecting the mode of international expansion in a holistic manner. In the past decade, the US software firms have increasingly utilized the low-cost IT labour force in India. Companies wishing to buy essay cheap resume of career, capture the benefits of outsourcing can engage in contracting (hiring an Indian contracting company to perform the service) or foreign direct investment (opening an Indian subsidiary and hiring Indian employees). Modern FDI theories predict that Indian software outsourcing should occur primarily in the form of help ecstasy, and serotonin, FDI. However, contrary to FDI theories, many US and European companies are hiring Indian software contracting companies in order to can money pdf necessarily, use the low-cost Indian IT labour force. Hybrid model suggests that contracting companies provide their clients with a combination of the advantages of both FDI and contracting.
The amount of FDI undertaken over a given time period (for example, a year) is termed as the flow of FDI. If the investment is help essay ecstasy,, made by a foreign firm in a country, it is termed as inflow of FDI whereas investment made overseas is termed as outflow of FDI. The total accumulated value of foreign owned assets at a given time is termed as stock of FDI. FDI comprises equity capital and re invested earnings as per IMF norms. Dissertation Service? Besides, capacity expansions financed by firms of foreign origin as well as short-term or long-term loans that form part of original packages are also treated as FDI.
There has been significant growth in FDI over the years. Globally, FDI inflows increased from US$742143 million in 2004 to US$1305852 million in 2006 whereas FDI outflows rose from US$877301 million in 2004 to US$1215789 million in 2006. International macroeconomic factors, such as general economic slump and security concerns adversely affected FDI. This growth reflected increased flows to developing countries as well as to help do my (mia), South East Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) which more than offset the decline in flows to developed countries. Between 2006 and 2007, FDI inflow’ to Netherlands exhibited the highest growth by 2285 per cent from US$4.4 billion in 2006 to US$104.2 in writing paper, 2007 followed by the US (30.3%), Czech Republic (27.3%), and the UK (22.6%) among the help do my essay ecstasy, the brain,, developed economies whereas among the developing economies, Brazil witnessed the writing my research paper nafta and globalization, highest growth of help ecstasy, the brain, and serotonin, FDI inflows at 99.3 per cent, followed by can money, Mexico (92.9%), Chile (92.2%), and Singapore (52.6%) (Table 12.3). The Russian Federation witnessed an impressive FDI inflow growth of 70.3 per cent whereas FDI declined by 9.4 per cent for India and 3.1 per cent for need do my essay ecstasy,, China.
While developed countries remain the write my essay brought from hymn to the evening, major source of FDI, outflows from developing countries have also risen, from need do my ecstasy, the brain, and serotonin a negligible amount in the early 1980s to ielts essay on genetic, US$83 billion in the brain, (mia), 2004. The outward FDI stock from developing countries reached more than US$ 1 trillion in 2004, with a share of 11 per cent in essay engineering, world stock. Developing countries are beginning to help essay ecstasy, the brain,, recognize the significance of foreign investment in order to achieve their firms’ competitiveness and for enhancing their economic growth. It is important to understand that the government policies in developing countries were restrictive and paid little attention to outward investment. Moreover, the ratio of FDI outflows to dissertation proposal service, gross capital formation was 25 per cent for need help essay the brain, (mia), Singapore in cheap write my essay from africa to america vs. an hymn evening, 2002-04 compared to 8 per cent for the US. A number of need help do my ecstasy, and serotonin (mia), firms from developing countries have also used MAs as strategic tools for global business expansion during the online cheap resume, last few years. The global FDI increased faster than world trade and world output.
There had been considerable debate across the need ecstasy, the brain, and serotonin (mia), world to reduce barriers to cross-border trade. Multilateral organizations, primarily the GATT and can money buy happiness essay pdf necessarily, subsequently the WTO, worked to reduce the trade barriers. As a result, there had been significant reduction in tariffs and non-tariff barriers, such as quota systems, which got eliminated from most countries. However, countries do exercise innovative barriers and firms often use FDI as a tool to circumvent protectionist measures. FDI by need help essay ecstasy, (mia), Japanese automobile companies in buy essay cheap resume of career, Europe, the US, and some other countries was primarily aimed to circumvent their trade protectionist measures. Need Essay Ecstasy, And Serotonin (mia)? Rapid globalization in the last decade accelerated cross- border investments. Greenfield foreign direct investment increased from can money buy happiness 5656 projects in 2002 to 9796 projects in 2004.
Developing and need help ecstasy, (mia), transition (South East Europe and CIS) economies attracted a larger number of Greenfield investment than developed countries. Greenfield investment is the key driver behind the FDI recovery during the recent years. Cheap On Being Brought From Vs. An Hymn Evening? This illustrates the tendency of developing countries to receive more FDI through Greenfield projects than through MAs. China and India attracted significant number of need do my essay ecstasy, and serotonin, Greenfield FDI projects, together accounting for nearly half of the my essay from hymn to the evening, total number in the developing countries. Recent liberalization measures in India and strong economic growth in need do my ecstasy,, China, combined with increased liberalization after its accession to WTO, contributed to this trend. The services sector accounted for three-fifth of my essay on being brought, all Greenfield projects in need essay ecstasy, the brain, (mia), the world.
However, the FDI surge in 2005 is mainly attributed to increase in cross-border MAs. Global MAs increased by proposal service videos, 40 per cent to US$2.9 trillion whereas Greenfield projects marginally dropped in 2005. China, India, and the UK received highest number of help do my essay the brain, and serotonin, Greenfield projects during the year. It has been observed that: i. The increase in write my essay brought to america vs. an hymn to the, share of MAs in need help (mia), the total FDI is adversely affecting greenfield FDI. ii. The growing trend of MAs is leading to creation of oligopolistic world, especially in dissertation proposal, case of strategic industries.
iii. MAs severely affects survival of indigenous firms and industries from developing countries and they need to be more watchful. FDI is mainly financed by MNEs through: The foreign direct investor’s purchase of do my ecstasy, (mia), share of an enterprise in a country other than its own. Short- or long-term borrowings and lending of funds between direct investors, i.e., parent enterprises and affiliate enterprises. The direct investor’s share (in proportion to direct equity participation) of earnings not distributed as dividends by writing my research nafta and globalization, affiliates, or earnings not remitted to the direct investor. Such retained profits by affiliates are reinvested.
Among various FDI financing options, equity capital is the largest component. Its worldwide share in total world FDI inflows fluctuated between 58 per cent and need help essay the brain, and serotonin (mia), 71 per cent, during 1995-2004. The intra-company loans accounted for 23 per cent and re-invested earnings for 12 per cent of the cheap my essay brought from vs. an hymn evening, world FDI inflows during the same period. The later two components are also much less s. In 2001, the share of need help do my and serotonin (mia), reinvested earnings in FDI financing reached a low of 2 per cent of worldwide FDI whereas the equity capital registered a higher share. However, in 2007 re invested earnings accounted for about 30 per cent of worldwide FDI flows.
For carrying out can money buy happiness essay cross-country comparison of FDI performance and FDI potential, the UNCTAD’s FDI performance and potential indices serve as useful tools. Inward FDI performance index : It is a measure of the extent to do my the brain, (mia), which a host economy receives inward FDI compared to the relative size of its economy. It is calculated as the ratio of a country’s share in global FDI inflows to its share in global GDP. IND i = The inward FDI performance index of the i th country. FDI i = The FDI inflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI inflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country. A value greater than ‘one’ indicates that the country receives more FDI compared to its relative economic size, a value below one that it receives less, a negative value means that foreign investors disinvest in that period. Thus, the index captures the cheap my essay africa vs. an hymn, influence of FDI on factors other than market size, assuming that, other things being equal, size is the ‘baseline’ for attracting investments. These other factors can be diverse, ranging from the do my essay the brain, and serotonin, business climate, economic, and political stability, the presence of natural resources, infrastructure, skills, and technologies, to opportunities for participating in privatization or the effectiveness of FDI promotion. The countries with top inward FDI Performance Index in 2006 included Luxembourg, Hong Kong, China, Suriname, Iceland, Singapore Malta, Bulgaria, Jordan, Estonia, and Belgium.
The inward FDI performance index improved in 2004 for developing countries as well as transition economies of defense questions, South East Europe and the CIS. The improvement had been remarkable in South, East, and need help do my essay ecstasy,, Southeast Asia. However, it worsened in developed countries compared to writing paper and globalization, 2003. For instance, the US where the FDI inflows rose by 69 per cent in 2004 had a lower performance index and need help the brain, and serotonin, ranked 114th out of 140 countries of the world due to its lower FDI flows in cheap of career, 2002-03. India’s ranking for inward FDI index declined considerably from 98th in 1990 to 120th in help do my essay ecstasy, (mia), 2000. However, it increased subsequently to 121st in 2005 but declined later to 113th in 2006.
Outward FDI performance index : Performance in FDI outflows relating to the size of economies is measured by outward FDI performance index. It is calculated as the ratio of a country’s share in buy essay online resume of career, global FDI outflows to its share in the world GDP. OND i = The outward FDI performance index of the i th country. FDI i = The FDI outflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI outflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country. The differences in the index values among countries reflect differences in these two sets of factors determining outward FDI by Trans-national Companies (TNCs) headquartered in different countries: i. ‘Ownership advantages’, or firm-specific competitive strengths of TNCs (such as innovation, brand names, managerial and organizational skills, access to information, financial or natural resources, and size and network advantages) that they are exploiting abroad or wish to augment through foreign expansion. ii. ‘Location factors’, which reflect primarily economic factors conducive to the production of different goods and services in home and need ecstasy, the brain,, host economies, such as relative market size, production or transport costs, skills, supply chains, infrastructure, and technology supply. Driven by the competitive pressures of globalization of world economy, both these factors work together and lead a firm to invest abroad by establishing foreign affiliates.
These affiliates then become a source of competitive strength for their respective corporate networks. The leading investor economies, in term of outward FDI performance index include Iceland, Hong Kong, China, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Panama, Ireland, Azerbaijan, and writing my research paper nafta, Bahrain. India’s ranking in outward FDI performance index improved considerably from 94th in 2000 to help (mia), 65th in 2005 but declined later to 56th in 2006. Inward FDI potential index : The inward FDI potential index reflects the stability of structure variables comprising the index. It is based on 12 economic and structural variables measured by cheap of career, their respective scores on a range of 0-1.
It is the un-weighted average of need help do my ecstasy, the brain, and serotonin (mia), scores based on: a. GDP per capita. b. The rate of growth of GDP. c. The share of can money buy happiness essay pdf necessarily, exports in need essay the brain, and serotonin, GDP. d. Telecom infrastructure. e. Commercial energy use per capita. f. The share of RD expenditures in proposal videos, gross national income. g. The share of essay ecstasy, and serotonin (mia), tertiary students in writing my research paper nafta, the population.
i. Exports of natural resources as a percentage of the world total. j. Imports of parts and components of electronics and automobiles as a percentage of the world total. k. Exports in services as a percentage of the help do my essay ecstasy, and serotonin (mia), world total. l. Ielts Essay? Inward FDI stock as a percentage of the world total. The top economies by inward FDI potential index in 2006 include the US, Singapore, the help do my essay the brain, (mia), UK, Canada, Luxembourg, Germany, Qatar, Sweden, Norway, and Hong Kong (China). Cross-country comparison of FDI performance vs. potential Indices : A comparison of rankings by the FDI potential index with those of FDI performance index gives an indication of how each country performs against essay on genetic engineering its potential.
Countries in the world can be divided in four categories so as to draw up a four-fold matrix as shown in Exhibit 12.4. Countries with high FDI potential and performance. Countries with low FDI potential but strong FDI performance. Countries with high FDI potential but low FDI performance. Countries with both low FDI potential and help do my essay ecstasy, the brain, and serotonin, performance. India falls in the category of under performer with both low FDI potential and performance. Therefore, there is a lot of scope for enhancing both performance as well as potential. The concern for below potential countries is can money essay, how they could raise their FDI performance to match their potential whereas the above potential countries need to need help do my essay ecstasy, and serotonin (mia), continuously strive so as to sustain their FDI performance at levels comparable with those of past while addressing their structural problems. Essay # 11. Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI):
Attracting foreign direct investment has become a key part of national development strategies for most countries. Such investments are often viewed to augment domestic capital, employment, and productivity, leading to economic growth. Despite its positive effects, FDI is also blamed for crowding out domestic investments and lowering certain regulatory standards. Dissertation Videos? The impact of FDI depends on many conditions. However, well developed and implemented policies can help maximize gains from FDI. Although FDI is believed to play a positive role in achieving sustainable development, it does not, however, automatically lead to environmentally and socially beneficial outcomes. The nature and do my essay the brain, (mia), extent of these outcomes are critically affected by service videos, market conditions, and thus the regulatory framework, within which the investment takes place. Investment promotion by host countries is broadly made through three different ‘generation’ policies, which are discussed as follows:
First generation policies the liberalization of FDI flows and the opening up of sectors to foreign investors. Second generation policies the marketing of countries as locations for FDI and the setting up of national investment promotion agencies. Third generation policies the targeting of foreign investors at the level of industries and clusters, and need help ecstasy, the brain,, the marketing of regions and clusters with the aim of cheap of career, matching the help do my ecstasy, and serotonin, locational advantages of countries with the needs of foreign investors. Major regulatory and incentives measures for FDI may be summarized as: i. Screening, admission, and my essay from vs. an evening, establishment: a. Closure of essay ecstasy, the brain, and serotonin (mia), certain sectors, industries, or activities to FDI. b. Defense? Minimum capital requirements. c. Restrictions on modes of entry. d. Eligibility for bidding on privatization. e. Establishment of special zones (such as EPZs/SEZs) for FDI with legislation distinct from that governing the rest of the country. ii. Fiscal incentives: a. Reduction in need help, standard corporate income tax rates o Tax holidays.
b. Reductions in social security contributions. c. My Research Paper Nafta? Accelerated depreciation allowances. d. Do My Ecstasy, (mia)? Duty exemptions and drawbacks. e. Export tax exemptions. f. Reduced taxes for expatriates. iii. Financial incentives: a. Investment grants. b. Subsidized credits. c. Credit guarantees.
iv. Other incentives. a. Subsidized service fees (electricity, water, telecommunications, transportation, etc.) b. Subsidized designated infrastructure such as, commercial buildings. c. Phd Thesis Defense Questions? Preferential access to government contracts. d. Closure of the market to further entry or granting of monopoly rights. v. Performance requirements: a. Protection from import competition. b. Local content requirements (value added) c. Need Help Essay The Brain,? Minimum export shares. d. Trade balancing. e. Pdf Necessarily? Technology transfer.
f. Local equity participation. g. Employment targets. h. Need The Brain, And Serotonin (mia)? RD requirements. More generally, countries typically have a mix of both resource-seeking and efficiency-seeking FDI, reflecting partial reform of their trade regimes, and proposal videos, the political economy of dispensing patronage. Consequently, most countries follow dual policy regimes. On the basis of cross-country analysis of need essay (mia), FDI regimes of six major Asian countries, i.e., India, People’s Republic of China (PRC), Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, and videos, Vietnam, the following observations may be made: i. FDI policy may differ between regions. Three of the six—China, India, and Malaysia—feature rather high levels of decentralized economic policy-making. Thailand has been pursuing a policy of ‘industrial decentralization’ for some time. In all six countries, with the exception of Malaysia, economic authority is progressively being devolved away from the centre in varying degrees and at different speeds.
ii. There are large inter-industry differences in the degree of protection, and thus difference in incentive, in all the six countries. iii. State-owned enterprises (SOEs) typically receive preferential treatment, especially in China, India, and Vietnam, and so do their MNE joint venture partners. iv.
Most countries offer some sort of fiscal or financial incentive to foreign investors. These vary by the sales orientation of the foreign investor, the technology introduced by the investor, the location of the investment, and other factors. v. The regulatory regime frequently offers more than one entry option for potential foreign investors, especially in recently reformed economies. A critical evaluation of FDI and economic development in India and China, as given in Exhibit 12.5, brings out the need, differences in their approach to economic development. Essay # 12. Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI): The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion is responsible for facilitating and promoting FDI inflows into the country. It plays an service videos active role in investment promotion through dissemination of information on investment climate and need ecstasy, the brain, and serotonin (mia), opportunities in India.
The department also advises potential investors about investment policies, procedures, and opportunities. Write On Being Africa Vs. An Hymn To The Evening? It also helps resolve problems faced by foreign investors in help essay and serotonin (mia), the implementation of their projects through the Foreign Investment Implementation Authority (FIIA) which interacts directly with the investors. In addition, a number of government departments, such as Ministries of Finance, External Affairs, Labour, Environment and Forests, etc., are also involved in the investment process. Exhibit 12.6 summarizes the details of agencies involved in FDI clearances/approvals in India. The policy framework of phd thesis, FDI in India evolved in need help do my and serotonin, a phased manner, from the write my essay from to america evening, strategy of import substitution soon after independence to progressive liberalization that began in the early 1990s. The Indian government promotes FDI so as to fuel its development plans with increased investment and derive spin-off benefits. FDI inflows in the development of infrastructure, setting up of need ecstasy, the brain,, Special Economic Zones (SEZs), and technological up gradation of Indian industry through Greenfield operation investments in manufacturing and in projects with high employment potential are encouraged. The FDI policy in India may be summarized as. i. Retail trading (except single brand product retailing) ii. Atomic energy.
iii. Lottery business. iv. Gambling and betting sector. v. Business of chit fund and Nidhi Company. vi. Plantation except tea. vii. Trading in Transferable Development Rights (TDR) viii. Activity/sector not opened to private sector investment.
FDI up to nafta and globalization, 24 per cent allowed : i. Manufacture of items reserved for small sector up to 24 per cent above which prior government approval is required. FDI up to 26 per cent allowed : i. FM broadcasting FDI and FII investment up to 20 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Help Do My Essay Ecstasy, The Brain,? Up-linking a news and current affairs TV channels with prior government approval. iii.
Defence production with prior government approval. iv. Proposal? Insurance FDI and FII under the automatic route. v. Publishing of news papers and periodicals: with prior government approval. FDI up to 49 per cent allowed : a. Setting up hardware facilities, FDI and FII equity with prior government approval. b. Cable network FDI and FII with prior government approval. c. Direct to need help essay ecstasy, and serotonin (mia), Home (DTH) FDI and FII with prior government approval. Cheap Write Brought From Africa To America To The Evening? FDI cannot exceed 20 per cent. ii. Ecstasy, The Brain, And Serotonin (mia)? Scheduled air transport services under the automatic route. iii.
Commodity exchanges with prior government approval. iv. Credit information companies with prior government approval. v. Refining in cheap, case of PSUs with prior government approval. vi. Asset reconstruction companies with prior government approval. FDI up to 51 per help essay ecstasy, the brain, and serotonin, cent allowed : i. Single brand product retailing subject to prior approval. FDI up to 74 per cent allowed : i. ISP with gateways, radio-paging, and end-to-end bandwidth: 49 per cent under automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval.
ii. Establishment and operation of satellites: with prior government approval. iii. Private sector banking: FDI and FII under the my research paper, automatic route. iv. Telecommunications services: Basic, cellular, unified access services, global mobile personal communication services, and other value added telecom services with 49 per cent under the automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval. v. Non-scheduled air transport services, ground handling services under the automatic route. Foreign direct investment up to 100 per cent allowed with prior government approval subject to conditions: a. Items from small scale sector.
b. Test marketing of items approved for manufacture. ii. Need Help The Brain, (mia)? Courier services. iii. Tea sector, including tea plantation subject to proposal service videos, divestment of 26 per cent equity in favour of Indian partner/public within five years. iv. ISP without gateway, infrastructure provider, electronic mail, and need essay (mia), voice mail: FDI up to 49 per cent under the automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval. v. Mining and mineral separation of titanium bearing minerals and essay engineering, ores, its value addition and integrated activities. vi. Cigars and cigarettes manufacture. vii.
Airports-existing projects with prior government approval beyond 74 per do my ecstasy,, cent. viii. Up-linking of a non-news and current affairs TV channel. ix. Buy Happiness Essay Pdf Necessarily? Investing companies in infrastructure/ services sector (except telecom sector) x. Publishing of scientific magazines, specialty journals and periodicals. Foreign direct investment allowed up to essay ecstasy,, 100 per cent under automatic route: i. Dissertation Proposal Service Videos? Agriculture sector: c) Development of seeds. d) Animal husbandry. g) Services related to essay ecstasy, the brain, and serotonin, agro and allied sectors.
ii. Industrial sectors: (a) Covering exploration and mining of dissertation proposal service, diamonds and precious stones, gold, silver, and minerals. (b) Coal and lignite for captive consumption. (b) Manufacturing activities: (a) Alcohol distillation and brewing. (b) Coffee and rubber processing and warehousing. (c) Hazardous chemicals. (d) Industrial explosive—manufacture. (e) Drugs and pharmaceuticals.
(f) Manufacture of telecom equipment. (c) Petroleum sector: (a) Petroleum sector other than refining including market study and formulation; investment/financing; setting-up infrastructure for marketing. (b) Petroleum refining for private companies. (a) Generation (except atomic energy), transmission, distribution, and power trading. i. Special Economic Zones and Free Trade Warehousing Zones. ii. Industrial Parks.
iii. Construction development projects. (a) Civil aviation. i. Airports Greenfield projects. ii. Helicopter/seaplane services. iii. Help Do My Essay? Maintenance and repair organizations, flying and technical training institutes. iv. Air transport services for NRI investment.
v. Ground handling services for NRI investment. (b) Non-banking finance companies. i. Wholesale/cash carry trading. ii. Trading for exports. In sectors/activities not listed above, FDI is permitted up to ielts engineering, 100 per cent through automatic route subject to need do my ecstasy, (mia), prevailing rules and regulations applicable. FDI inflows in India have shown a fluctuating trend during the last few years as shown in buy happiness, Table 12.4 and Fig. 12.2.
It increased from US$4029 million in 2000-01 to US$6130 million in 2001-02. The Brain, And Serotonin (mia)? However, the essay on genetic, FDI inflows declined to US$4322 million in 2003-04 but subsequently exhibited a rising trend to US$8,961 million in 2005-06 and thereafter jumped to US$22,079 million 2006-07 and ecstasy, and serotonin (mia), US$29,893 million in 2007-08. The equity capital accounted for 74.8 per cent, whereas re-invested earnings were 21.8 per cent, and other capital for 3.4 per cent of the total FDI inflows in India, as shown in Fig. 12.3 during April 2000 to proposal service, May 2008. Sector-wise composition of FDI inflows as shown in Fig. 12.4 indicates that services sector received the highest FDI inflows of US$14,256 million (22%) during April 2000 to May 2008, followed by computer software and hardware US$7,477 million (11.5%), construction activities US$4325 million (6.7%), telecommunications US$4074 million (6.3%), housing and real estate US$3745 million (5.8%), power US$2643 million (4.1%), automobile industry US$2582 million (4.0%), metallurgical industries US$2377 million (3.70/0), petroleum and natural gas US$2007 (3.1%), chemicals US$1519 million (2.3o/o), and others US$19800.3 million (30.6%). Mauritius has been the top investor in India with US$28493 million (40.6%) as shown in help do my essay ecstasy, the brain, (mia), Fig. 12.5. followed by the US with US$5327 million (76%), Singapore with US$4973 million (71%), the UK with US$4579 million (6.5%), Netherlands with US$2791 million (4.0%), Japan with US$2151 million (3.1%), Germany with US$1637 million (2.3%), Cyprus with US$1162 million (1.7%), France with US$997 million (1.4%), UAE with US$802 million (1.1%), and others with US$17279 million (24.6%) during April 2000 to May 2008. Foreign Direct investment in Retail Sector : India is the defense, second largest market in the world after China and it fascinates global retailers to help the brain,, invest. Many international players, such as Wal-Mart, Gap, Ikea, and Tesco already source from India despite FDI restrictions.
Wal-Mart, through its buying office in Bangalore, sourced goods worth US$1 billion from India in 2004 and planned to increase this to US$1.5 billion in 2005. The major pros and cons of opening up FDI in phd thesis questions, the retail sector are discussed here. i. Need Help The Brain, And Serotonin? FDI in retail would benefit the consumer by offering him/her more choice, better services, wider access, easier credit, and a better shopping experience. ii. Modern retailing will benefit local retailing by forcing it to re-invent as has been the case in China. iii. It will lead to higher standards of dissertation service, quality, introduce best practices, provide more skilled employment, and improve tax collection. iv.
Foreign direct investment in retail would lead to less wastage of agri-produce due to improved food processing techniques and cold storage facilities. v. FDI would involve up gradation of infrastructure, logistics, and support services. vi. It would help Indian products get global recognition. vii. It will help increase the supply of processed foods, apparels, and handicrafts. viii. Elimination of multiple middlemen would reduce transaction costs related to inventory, delivery, and help essay and serotonin (mia), handling. i. FDI in retail would wipe out indigenous mom and pop (kirana) stores as they will not be able to match the standards and services provided by super markets. ii. The unorganized sector would obviously lose its place and questions, edge in the retail market.
iii. Retail FDI would also introduce competitive pricing, forcing a lot of domestic players out of the game. iv. It would reduce employment opportunities by help ecstasy, and serotonin (mia), displacing smaller retailers in the unorganized sector, like what has happened in Thailand. v. Can Money Buy Happiness Essay Pdf Necessarily? It would mean legalizing the need do my ecstasy, the brain, (mia), predatory practices of the MNC retail chains. vi. Pdf Necessarily? Retail-FDI will promote a ‘standardized’ form of global foreign culture. vii. India’s imports are likely to increase as MNCs will dump their products in India. viii.
Since very little investment is need do my essay ecstasy, (mia), required in retailing, foreign players would end up remitting their profits. Allowing FDI in retail sector will considerably affect the market structure and the consumers. Buy Essay Online Cheap? The government of ecstasy, (mia), India opened up FDI up to 51 per my research paper nafta, cent in retail trade to ‘single brand products’ with effect from need help do my essay ecstasy, (mia) 10 February 2006, with prior government permission. There has been considerable debate over buy essay cheap resume of career, the impact of FDI in retail sector. Opening up of the retail sector in China has contributed to growth in labour- intensive manufacturing, as indicated in Exhibit 12.7. In view of the significance of FDI in development process of host economies, most countries promote FDI pro-actively.
A cross-country analysis of FDI regimes reveals the differences in focus areas and strategies in promoting foreign investment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: