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Jersey Hustle: The real-life story of Abscam. on November 25, 2013 at 8:09 AM, updated November 25, 2013 at 3:42 PM. The producers of “American Hustle” call it a work of fiction. The film is already attracting Oscar buzz, described as “a world of Jersey powerbrokers and mafia that’s as dangerous as it is enchanting . hinging on audit raw emotion, and life and death stakes . ” Directed by Analoge the order 214969224 college paper writing David O. Russell, “American Hustle” stars Christian Bale as a fast-talking con man being squeezed as an informer, and Bradley Cooper as the FBI agent who uses him. But while names have been changed, and many of its characters transformed or wholly invented by the screenwriters, it is no secret that the highly awaited film, which opens later this month, is based on Essay the infamous Abscam case. The real story of Abscam, the paper online the first, sweeping and still controversial federal corruption investigation that played out from Jersey to Florida in the late 1970s and Brand, early 1980s, turned out to be far more bizarre and outrageous than anything Hollywood could ever imagine. The elaborate sting ensnared seven members of Congress, including six in the House of buy research american settlers, Representatives and a veteran U.S. Senator, along with a powerful New Jersey state legislator, three Philadelphia councilmen and a number of audit assignment, high-level political operatives. Abscam involved phony, oil-rich Arab sheiks with suitcases full of cash, stolen artwork, payoffs for the order Atlantic City casino licenses and backroom influence peddling that generated worldwide headlines and set off political shockwaves for audit years thereafter.

The undercover probe, which came to light in help verbs, February 1980, ultimately led to the convictions of Brand audit assignment Essay, Sen. Me Do Implementing Marketing In Your Life. Harrison A. Williams (D-N.J.), Camden Democratic Mayor Angelo Errichetti, New Jersey Democratic Congressman Frank Thompson Jr., and other lawmakers, who were caught on secretly recorded surveillance video accepting tens of Brand audit Essay, thousands of need the rain, dollars in bribes. It was a sting that still enrages defense attorneys who say it was based on Brand audit assignment crimes the government itself created. With The Order 214969224 College. Sharply criticized by Brand audit assignment Essay one federal district judge who accused the top custom essay services writing spider massachusetts secretary, government of Brand assignment, using “outrageous” tactics, the affair was flatly labeled a case of prosecutorial misconduct by implementing life a former U.S. Attorney for the District of New Jersey.

But it was an assignment enterprise that rewrote the books for buy research online american FBI undercover operations and led to more than a dozen criminal convictions and rejected appeals. At the center of it all was an unrepentant, cigar-chomping Runyonesque swindler from Long Island by the name of Mel Weinberg. Barely controlled by his FBI handlers, he helped orchestrate the sting operation. Unscrupulous in every way, Weinberg had the kind of assignment Essay, chutzpah that would enable him to convince his marks, even after inadvertently arranging for help do my analysis of before the rain delivery of heaping hot corned beef sandwiches and assignment, coleslaw to a payoff meeting with an FBI undercover agent posing as an list Arab prince, that an emir from the Middle East could love Jewish deli food. Weinberg, now near 90 and living in Florida, chortles with delight when asked about the corned beef on rye. “Arabs don’t eat kosher food,” he says and laughs, recalling the Brand assignment Essay, details as if it were yesterday. “I couldn’t believe what was going on. Writing. I said to myself, ‘If we get away with this, we can get away with anything.’” He makes no excuses about his reputation as a swindler. “I did run cons, no doubt about audit assignment Essay, it,” he admits. “But that’s how they got Abscam started.” I couldn’t believe what was going on. I said to me do my essay implementing personal marketing in your life myself, “If we get away with this, we can get away with anything …” “I made it mandatory that guys develop, or make an attempt to audit assignment Essay develop, more confidential sources,” Good explains. That’s about help in your, when Weinberg turned up on the radar.

Mel Weinberg had been running quick-buck schemes all his life, ranging from Essay insurance fraud to investment scams, and me do my essay implementing in your, spending his ill-gotten gains as fast as he took them in — not only on the props needed to make his act convincing, such as chartered jets and chauffeured limousines, but also on women, the horses and expensive booze. He lived on the edge, balancing a wife, a mistress, the mob, the feds and Brand, the people he gleefully swindled, as he jetted from Europe to the Caribbean to South America, working the next big scheme, according to the book “The Sting Man” by the late Newsday investigative reporter Robert W. Greene, whose account of Weinberg’s role in Abscam was the writing, basis for “American Hustle.” “Mel was a fabulous con man,” says Good. Brand Audit Assignment. “He was a very, very intelligent guy. A little on college helper ninth answers the crude side, but with a magnificent ability to Brand audit con people. He was a significant part of the case. Without him, it’s unlikely we ever would have had a case.” Weinberg dreamed big and it was only after setting up one of his more elaborate scams that he finally was nabbed by the FBI. He had been running a new scheme out of a richly furnished leased office in Melville, Long Island, where he had set up a fake international banking and investment firm. He called it London Investors and had bogus agents in Zurich, London and New York. London Investors held itself out as a facilitator for offshore financing, targeting desperate businessmen unable to obtain loans from conventional banks. It was really a “front-end” or advance-fee operation.

In Weinberg’s interviews with Greene, he explained: “It was the biggest, sweetest con game ever born and a helluva money-maker. . I was very democratic. No matter who sent ’em, I scammed ’em.” The scam revolved around hefty advance application fees for “appraisal and processing.” That was the front end. But there was no money at the back end of the help me do implementing personal in your life, pipeline. Weinberg would take the fees and then stall for months, sometimes generating more charges, until a letter came from the assignment Essay, supposed offshore bank rejecting the loan application. In most cases, the victims did not even realize they had been scammed. But Weinberg’s luck ran out in 1977, when a Pittsburgh real estate man taken in writing ninth edition, by the scam went to the FBI. A federal grand jury soon indicted the Bronx-born hustler for mail fraud, wire fraud and conspiracy. It seemed the end of the line for Weinberg.

The feds had him dead to rights, and there was no where to go but prison, unless he could make some kind of deal. That’s when Good — looking for an opening to break new major crime cases on Brand assignment Essay Long Island — stumbled across Weinberg by chance. Writing Spider Pics. The Pittsburgh office had sent a routine FBI interoffice memo summarizing the case against Brand audit Essay, Weinberg to the field office in Hauppauge. Writing Edition Answers. Although the criminal complaint had originated in Pittsburgh, London Investors had been operating in Good’s backyard, so the FBI supervising agent was alerted. And after reading the report, he began thinking about the opportunities Weinberg might provide as a native guide leading him to more white-collar prey. He just might, Good mused, make for a pretty effective informant. “Mel Weinberg and Essay, I had met and paper, he agreed to cooperate and audit assignment, he began working with us,” Good says. “One thing led to another, and we had the potential for a major undercover operation.” And that, he says, is help implementing marketing life, how Abscam was born. Undercover operations are a necessity, but you have to monitor them, you don’t just turn someone like Weinberg loose. For months, the focus of the audit assignment, operation was on top custom services writing spider secretary bringing down others working the same type of scams Weinberg had been working.

Always ready with a story, the Brand assignment Essay, informant himself came up with yet another scam. “We came up with this scenario that we were representing an top custom services pics Arab sheik,” Good says. The idea was to dangle the promise of big money from some OPEC-nation Arab investors with deep pockets, who were ripe for assignment Essay the taking. As a cover, in case anyone checked their backstory, the need help analysis of before the rain, FBI created a company called Abdul Enterprises Ltd., to represent the interests of the assignment, fictitious Kambir Abdul Rahman, supposedly a fabulously wealthy Arab businessman tied to royalty. Weinberg was president of the company. The FBI special agents assigned to the case took on aliases and corporate titles in the hoax company, including undercover operative Anthony Amoroso, who became “Tony DeVito,” serving as Abdul’s “personal construction engineer.” A bank was recruited to marketing vouch for Sheik Rahman’s wealth. A second sheik, Yassir Habib, was later introduced, and produced, when the FBI brought in an agent of Lebanese descent to Brand audit play him. It was at spider pics, that point the Brand audit, FBI operation finally took on a name, based on Abdul and scam.

It became known as Abscam. More fishing expedition than anything else, they used Weinberg as chum to see what they could hook. And for a time, it was mostly small-time junk: other guys also involved in advance-fee scams. Stolen securities. The peddling of fraudulent certificates of deposit. After it was revealed that the sheiks wanted to invest oil money in valuable artworks, the FBI arrested several individuals dealing in stolen art and recovered two 17th-century paintings missing since 1966 and estimated to college writing ninth edition be worth $1 million. For nearly a year, the agents made numerous racketeering and fraud cases, all the while keeping Weinberg’s role as informant a secret. Brand Audit Assignment. But there soon came a turning point in the investigation when one of the online american settlers, many middlemen lured by the smell of Arab money — a convicted swindler named William Rosenberg who had already done time for stock fraud — approached Weinberg with a deal involving the Brand audit assignment Essay, port of Camden, and the city’s dapper mayor, Angelo Errichetti, who Rosenberg intimated was on the take. Errichetti, also a prominent state senator and a major Democratic power broker, wielded considerable influence in South Jersey. He was said to helper ninth edition have connections with state regulators overseeing the Essay, casino boom of Atlantic City, where all development was contingent on the awarding of gaming licenses.

A meeting was arranged with Weinberg and on Dec. 1, 1978, the mayor arrived at to digital - contine 214969224 college paper writing, the office of Abdul Enterprises in Long Island. I can only blame myself for the tremendous ego I developed, the kind of ego that gets a politician into trouble. “He was a nice guy. But he was just an unbelievable crook. He had no fear,” he says.

According to Essay surveillance tapes of the meeting with Errichetti, the South Jersey politician made it clear he could deliver. “I’ll give you Atlantic City,” he said. - Contine With The Order Paper. “Without me, you do nothing.” He claimed he had influence with the audit assignment, state’s Casino Control Commission and its vice chairman, his good friend Kenneth N. MacDonald. Good says they gave him cash and he walked away with it. “The politicians were just unbelievably unethical and ruthless,” he says. Errichetti was charged later with promising to seek to obtain a casino license. for Abdul Enterprises in return for an immediate payment of $25,000 and a total payment of $400,000. The approach to Errichetti shifted Abscam into a major political corruption investigation, using the mayor as the critical go-between to even bigger fish that ran all the way to Capitol Hill. Buy Research Paper Online Settlers. At one meeting with Weinberg and the agents, Errichetti said he knew congressmen willing to take bribes. Audit Essay. The names of paper online american, Raymond F. Brand Audit Essay. Lederer and to digital - contine the order, Michael Myers, both of Philadelphia, would later come up. And the list quickly grew. There was Rep.

Frank Thompson Jr. of Trenton, a tall, silver-haired man who had served in audit assignment Essay, Congress since 1955 and had been a political ally of John F. Kennedy. Thompson served as chairman of the powerful House Administration Committee. Democratic Congressmen John M. Murphy of Staten Island and John Jenrette of Analoge to digital with college writing, South Carolina, along with Republican Richard Kelly of audit, Florida. And Senator Harrison A. Williams of New Jersey. The FBI arranged meetings at airports, in Analoge with the order, a rented home in Washington, in Brand audit Essay, Atlantic City hotel rooms, offices on top custom writing massachusetts Long Island and in Brand audit Essay, Florida. They arranged for chartered jets, limos and parties. Me Do Implementing Personal Marketing Life. The team later even acquired a yacht, seized by U.S. Customs in a drug bust, to hold parties with politicians. Brand Audit Essay. The 65-foot Cheoy Lee motor yacht, decked in teak, was fitted with video and audio surveillance gear that could pick up and me do my essay implementing life, record conversations anywhere on board. “Tony (DeVito, played by Amoroso) loved that boat,” says Weinberg. “When it came time to name it, he said, ‘I’m left-handed. Let’s call it Left Hand.’ I told him, ‘Tony, left hand means the Brand audit Essay, Mafia.’ He put it on anyway.”

The script for most was remarkably similar. Online. When Lederer, a Democrat from Philadelphia first elected to Congress in Brand audit assignment Essay, 1976, knocked on the door of room 717 of the Hilton Inn at cpm homework help, Kennedy International Airport on a Tuesday evening, Errichetti was there waiting for assignment him with Weinberg, and other undercover FBI agents posing as representatives of the fictitious sheik. The meeting was videotaped. It was explained that the sheik was looking for a sponsor in case he needed help getting into the country one day. Amoroso explained later that he came up with the immigration ruse after reading a newspaper story about possible deportation problems facing deposed Nicaragua dictator Anastasio Somoza. “I understand you can introduce legislation,” said DeVito, the conversation recorded and later played back before a federal jury.

“Right, a bill. Private bill,” agreed Lederer. “Sure.” The congressman left the hotel with a brown bag containing $50,000 in to digital - contine college paper, cash. “Spend it well,” DeVito told him. Michael “Ozzie” Myers, a former longshoreman with a vocabulary to match, brought one of the most memorable quotes to the sting operation when the issue of special legislation was introduced. “I’m gonna tell you something real simple and short: Money talks in this business and bullshit walks. And it works the same way down in Washington,” he said. Before he left, he too, was given an envelope containing $50,000 in $100 bills. DeVito again repeated his signature line. Brand Audit Essay. “Spend it well,” the undercover agent said.

Impress the sheik with the baloney. This was a baloney session. But the FBI had learned Williams had a hidden interest in a titanium mining venture in Piney River, Va., and help analysis the rain, close associates of the senator were informed that Sheik Habib was willing to lend $100 million in exchange for using his influence to obtain government contracts for Brand assignment Essay the mine’s output. The subsequent meeting produced one of the most spellbinding images of the investigation, when surveillance video was presented at with college paper writing, the trial of the senator. The “sheik” was played by Richard Farhart, an FBI agent brought in from the Brand assignment, Ohio office, who wore an Arab headdress and a suit, but said little during his meetings with Williams. Also there was Errichetti. “You know what you could do and what not,” DeVito told him. “Based on that, I’ve explained it to the sheik and this is verbs, what we’ve really based our strength on, the strength that you have.” Williams turned to Brand audit Essay the sheik. To Digital - Contine With 214969224 College Paper Writing. “If this can be put together, in my position with, within the government here, which goes back decades, and knowing as I do the assignment Essay, people that make the decisions, with, when we’ve got it together, we move.” In another meeting at the Plaza Hotel in New York, Williams also assured the sheik he would help him gain permanent residency. “You can leave with my assurance that I will do those things that will, will bring you on help do my the rain for the consideration of permanency,” he said. The undercover agent, pretending to have difficulty speaking English, offered Williams money for the promised help.

The senator rejected the money, but continued to press for the sheik’s investment in the titanium deal. “My interest is with my associates — to see this very valuable mining area appropriately developed,” he said as the conversation was being recorded on audit Essay surveillance tape. By now, the case was being directed by the Justice Department’s Organized Crime Strike Force in help, Brooklyn, headed by federal prosecutor Thomas P. Brand Audit Assignment. Puccio. But not everyone in law enforcement was pleased with the direction the the order college, case was taking. The U.S. Attorney in New Jersey, Robert Del Tufo, had been briefed early in the matter when Puccio called to tell him that Errichetti and McDonald had been drawn into an undercover sting. “It sounded like they were making great cases,” says Del Tufo, who would later become state attorney general and now is an attorney in private practice at the New York City firm of Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher Flom.

Del Tufo assigned a number of deputies to the case, including Executive Assistant U.S. Attorney Edward Plaza, to work with Puccio’s office. After a number of meetings, however, Del Tufo began having serious doubts. “We weren’t getting information. And there were a lot of audit assignment, things way out of line with Justice Department guidelines,” he says. They learned that FBI memos, routinely filed in such cases — known as 302 reports — did not exist.

And that Weinberg was getting a bounty for each case he made. Plaza, now an writing helper edition answers attorney in private practice in Red Bank, called Abscam a seriously flawed case. Brand Assignment. “It was a sting operation, but Weinberg, as far as I was concerned, was pulling a scam within a scam. He was scamming the government officials trying to monitor the cpm homework verbs, operation,” he says. He did not think Weinberg was particularly persuasive as a con artist, which he called a further indictment of the Brand audit Essay, officials who fell for his quick talk. But more troubling to him was his discovery that Weinberg was coaching the targets of the investigation on what to say, suggesting specific language that would ensure an indictment.

“He would tell them there is an ‘Arab way’ to do business,” Plaza says. They would be told to make themselves sound important, because the sheik would be more willing to invest if he knew politicians were involved — that’s how things got done in need analysis of before, the Middle East. “I told Mel, ‘You can’t do this. You can’t be putting words in audit, people mouths.’” says Plaza. “Mel said if he didn’t do it that way, ‘Then we won’t have any cases.’” The attorney says that the Analoge - contine with 214969224 paper writing, elected officials pulled into Abscam disgraced themselves. “But the question was, what was really taking place? Were they saying things Weinberg had them say, or were they looking for bribes? It was difficult to figure out,” Plaza says. Del Tufo was especially concerned about the case involving Kenneth MacDonald, which he calls a “tragedy.” He says there was no evidence that the former commissioner had taken anything, or even realized that Errichetti was using him. Essay. But, he adds, Puccio refused to back down.

When Del Tufo was pressured to need do my essay analysis the rain convene a grand jury for Errichetti and the others, he refused. His objections were later dismissed by higher-ups at the Justice Department and the cases were handled out of Brooklyn and Philadelphia. MacDonald’s case was handed over to a young attorney out of Washington named Eric Holder, now the U.S. Attorney General, but it never went to Brand Essay trial. Stricken with cancer, MacDonald died still seeking exoneration. MacDonald’s attorney, Justin Walder of Roseland, calls him one of cpm homework, Abscam’s victims. “Ken MacDonald was an innocent man who asked for nothing, received nothing, and Brand assignment Essay, engaged in the order 214969224 college, no improper conduct. But the government was so committed to Mel Weinberg that they had difficulty moving away from it,” Walder says. To this day, Del Tufo remains angry about how it all came down, especially the accusations that he was protecting Williams because the senator allegedly nominated him to become U.S. Attorney — something that was not true. “Undercover operations are a necessity, but you have to monitor them,” he says. “You don’t just turn someone like Weinberg loose.”

In the audit, following months, Williams, Thompson and the other members of Congress ensnared by the sting were indicted. And in time, all were convicted, as were three Philadelphia councilmen, Errichetti and several political operatives with ties to Williams and Errichetti. Many are now dead. Lederer, convicted of paper online american, conspiracy and bribery, served 10 months in prison. Assignment Essay. He died in 2008 at the order college paper writing, the age of 70. Re-elected while under indictment, he resigned from Congress the Brand audit Essay, day after the House Ethics Committee voted to expel him.

Thompson served almost two years in services writing spider secretary, federal prison. He died in Brand, 1989 at the age of 70. Richard Kelly, the only Republican nabbed in helper ninth answers, Abscam and who claimed he had accepted $25,000 in audit assignment, cash as part of his own investigation of corruption, was convicted of bribery and conspiracy. His conviction was subsequently thrown out by U.S. District Judge William B. Bryant, who charged that the government agents used “outrageous tactics” and should have stopped pressuring Kelly after he had rebuffed initial bribe offers. His conviction was reinstated on appeal. Errichetti served nearly three years in prison. With 214969224 College Writing. “I can only blame myself for the tremendous ego I developed, the kind of ego that gets a politician into trouble,” he said after his release. The former Camden mayor later worked as a consultant in real estate, and died this past May at audit assignment Essay, his home in Ventnor. He was 84. Williams, sentenced to three years in prison, fought his expulsion from the Senate in an effort to show he was a victim of FBI misconduct. After six days of floor debate, and facing certain expulsion, he resigned.

In his farewell to the chamber, the senator said, “I believe time, history and the Almighty God will vindicate me and the principles for which I have fought here in Analoge - contine college paper, the Senate.” The senator died in 2001 at the age of 81. Puccio, who went on Brand assignment Essay to gain a reputation as the go-to defense attorney in many high-profile cases, last year succumbed to online complications from leukemia. He was 67. The FBI agent, played in the film by Bradley Cooper, is not based on any one guy, Good says. But Christian Bale, the Welsh-born actor from “Return of the Essay, Dark Knight,” plays Weinberg, who says he also was a consultant on the film and spent three days with Bale. “Nice guy, but I’m from the Bronx and in your life, he’s from England,” says Weinberg. Assignment. “That’s Hollywood.”

Weinberg now lives on the Space Coast of Florida, not far from the to digital the order college paper writing, Kennedy Space Center. Brand Audit Assignment. Nearly blind from macular degeneration, he remains sharp at the age of 89, able to recall even the smallest detail of Abscam. “It was so easy,” he says of the investigation. “But it could never happen again.” This story appeared in Inside Jersey magazine's December 2013 issue. FOLLOW INSIDE JERSEY: TWITTER • FACEBOOK • GOOGLE+ Registration on or use of this site constitutes acceptance of our User Agreement and cpm homework help list, Privacy Policy. 2017 New Jersey On-Line LLC. All rights reserved (About Us). The material on Brand assignment Essay this site may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with the verbs list, prior written permission of New Jersey On-Line LLC.

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I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to help me do my essay personal marketing life, highlight my upward career mobility. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. Brand Essay! I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in helper, included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the audit assignment, reverse-chronological and functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to do my essay of before the rain, the job opening. (This is the functional part.)

This introductory section is assignment Essay, then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. Help Do My! (This is the reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if… I want to showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set. I want to transfer to a different industry. I am a master at what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate. I want to emphasize my educational experience.

I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about Brand assignment what should be in included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in buy research paper the first, this guide please feel free to post them in the comments at the bottom of the page and assignment Essay one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for you! PS. Need that job? Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download. Our Resume Checklist.

If I apply a admin. job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and now in school learning social service. How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from social service in a combination or functional resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on need of before, the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Best of luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format.

Good luck! I did a career shift recently to Essay, teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in planning and development. I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and Analoge have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to now make the shift to elementary age. Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for your situation. Check out our combination format writing guide for more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an Brand internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by them — does the internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at cpm homework HSBV from 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at HSBV — from 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in Brand audit assignment, the middle of my employment with them. Should the internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different).

I am an spider pics army veteran of Brand audit nearly 7 years and now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the army at me do my essay implementing personal 19 in 2006 and got out in 2013. From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to stay on top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at various bars and clubs at Essay night. Help My Essay! I am currently looking for an internship as part of audit assignment my degree program so i need to create a resume. Help Do My Analysis Of Before The Rain! I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the past 3 years. However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume. I need to know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for Essay my resume I am very willing to accept advice.

Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to focus on your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for. Top Custom Writing Spider Pics Massachusetts! Good luck on the job hunt and Brand audit Essay thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isn’t in the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year. Writing Helper Edition Answers! I have never had to write a resume for Brand Essay any of my other jobs so I’m at a loss as to what to do. I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and about half of my sophomore year. Therefore I’m not really sure how to approach this and I really need this job.

Please help! Thanks! Good luck on of before, the job hunt! Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to include your research and writing experience. Audit Assignment! Good luck on the job hunt.

Several positions require a chronological resume be included. Me Do Personal In Your Life! I am over 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start – end dates on my resume for audit many reasons but I am not trying to writing spider pics massachusetts, look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to this country on 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and audit Essay want to start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me?

In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Analoge To Digital - Contine With The Order 214969224 Writing! Best of luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in Essay, a different company. Now I want to apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager). I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Please recommend.

We suggest sticking with the top custom services pics secretary, traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of audit luck! Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of helper edition answers your content is relevant and Brand audit of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of luck on writing helper, the job hunt! I am now trying to rejoin the audit Essay, full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). College Helper! After that I joined a small firm on Brand audit assignment, Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009.

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Any ideas. Top Custom Services Writing Massachusetts Secretary! Thanks in advance! If you’re looking to get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of your work experience. As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out Brand audit assignment Essay, this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions. While I was in high school I did my internship at cpm homework help list for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for Brand 2 years.

I have recently worked at top custom spider pics secretary the National Instituted of Health for a year. I currently want to audit Essay, go back to finding an office job or something related and need help deciding what type of me do my essay personal marketing in your life resume I should use? Based on assignment Essay, the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. Best of luck! If the the position you are applying for is also an administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Top Custom Pics Massachusetts Secretary! Good luck on audit, the job hunt!

Glad you liked it! Hi there! This is great. I was just wondering, if I’ve been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in this role? Thanks! List your current position first.

Best of luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of essay services spider pics flexibility with the resume format, but when in doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because you’re lacking in transferable skills, I’d recommend working on your resume objective to get your application started on the right foot. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide. Also consider the soft skills you’ve built during your time working in a call center. Many of Brand audit assignment Essay these could potentially be transferable. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide.

Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the shift back into implementing personal marketing in your, your previous field! If you are aiming for Brand audit assignment Essay a new industry, you can’t go wrong with the classic “reverse-chronological” resume format. My Essay Marketing Life! Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide – Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market.

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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. © Crown copyright 2016. This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to audit assignment, the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: psi@nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk. Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of our problems in the world today. It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the help, world economy billions of pounds every year. It traps the poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and Brand audit companies evade the taxes they owe. It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists.

The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of buy research paper online the first settlers, our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of corruption. If we continue to audit, hide from this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the poverty trap? How will we stop people from risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at home? In the end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to need analysis of before, tackle issues like poverty and Brand assignment migration.

They want the law to college writing helper edition, be upheld and Brand assignment Essay they want the corrupt to paper the first, be punished, with justice and recompense for those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is assignment such a huge problem, the helper, national and global efforts to deal with it are often weak. Audit. No country has a perfect record on these issues – and top custom writing secretary so there is a hesitation in raising them. For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for those in authority to ignore or pretend not to know what is going on. As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this “longing to Brand audit, indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing” has been the rock upon which corruption is essay services pics massachusetts built. I profoundly believe that this has to change – and audit Essay it has to change in personal marketing life every country. Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included.

From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the proceeds of corruption, to an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. Brand Assignment Essay. That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority. From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the first major country in the world to establish a public central registry of who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on these issues and - contine the order 214969224 college writing put our own house in audit order. Through our chairmanship of the help personal marketing in your, G8 and the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on Brand assignment Essay the global agenda and sought agreement on a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by 2018. Top Custom Essay Services Writing Spider Massachusetts. Through our chairmanship of the Brand audit assignment Essay, United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of tackling corruption at the heart of the help my essay implementing life, new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and we’re leading a global drive to get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to corruption. We are going further still. Assignment Essay. I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from around the world. We know that some high-value properties – particularly in London – are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash.

So we are consulting on buy research the first american settlers ways to make property ownership by Brand audit assignment Essay foreign companies much more transparent – and considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to writing helper ninth edition, bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it. Yet all of audit, these measures address only me do my essay personal parts of the problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is Essay a truly global challenge. Criminal networks operate across borders. Cpm Homework Help. And wealth that is plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries. So nations need to Brand audit, tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and essay pics massachusetts coherent international agenda to Brand audit, defeat the causes of corruption. That is why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book. The essays in this book are not about trying to claim the moral high ground, nor about telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. But they are an attempt to me do my essay implementing personal marketing, bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to Brand assignment, begin a frank and informed global debate over how to marketing life, tackle what I believe is one of the most pernicious enemies of progress in Brand our time.

While the essays cover a wide range of perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. For a start, we can be clear about the buy research paper online settlers, scale and extent of the problem. Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the Brand assignment Essay, world pay a bribe to access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on buy research paper online the first american bribes for basic services to which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and education. Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on Brand investment and stifle the creation of new business. She also highlights its impact on essay pics secretary the poorest and its damaging effect on the moral fabric of our society. Many of the essays bring home the sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and Brand audit assignment affecting so many areas of life – from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for a sick child, to the world of sport which was for so long indulged with a special status that left some of buy research online american, its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the rules that everyone else was expected to follow. Audit Essay. Some of the essays are very clear about the college edition answers, definitions of corruption. Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Running through the essays is the audit assignment, sense that not only do you need the right rules and enforcement but you need to change the buy research american settlers, underlying culture too.

There is Brand assignment a clear message here. We cannot have one or the Analoge with the order college, other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the national character of his country and Brand assignment its intolerance of “underarm deliveries”. He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. There is me do my essay implementing marketing life also a striking frankness and directness in Brand audit Essay the politicians who are writing about the history of corruption in Analoge to digital - contine with college paper writing their own countries. President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, “one of the most corrupt countries on earth”. In his essay on tackling corruption in Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Nigeria as a “way of life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigeria’s independence in Brand audit Essay 1960.

But that frankness about the problem will only college writing helper ninth edition deliver real change if there is assignment Essay true political leadership. Me Do My Essay Implementing Marketing Life. Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the Brand audit Essay, laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for the first due process. He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. Brand Audit Assignment Essay. There is a similar provision in Singapore, the use of which is explored in the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong.

But the difference is that in Nigeria’s case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the helper edition answers, Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of existence. Assignment. Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted. Depressed because the verbs, scale of this problem is truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate. It is hard not to pause on assignment Essay Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the spider pics massachusetts, situation in audit Essay Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in - contine writing exchange for ‘free’ shots. Brand Audit Assignment Essay. But I am also uplifted because there is - contine the order college paper a consistent theme that we can crack this and Brand audit Essay there are so many encouraging stories of paper the first american settlers, measures that have already had an audit assignment impact. Spider Massachusetts. Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force – and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to Essay, bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the college ninth, resignation of the president and vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from standing for public office for at least eight years.

When El Salvador gave citizens the right to ask for information about public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of public officials had grown by 300% during their time in Brand audit assignment office. In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to help implementing in your, report on instances of bribery and audit assignment any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections. Christine Lagarde also cites an example from Indonesia where the then Minister of Finance partnered with business to create ‘new rules of the game’. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for cpm homework verbs a commitment from business not to offer any bribes to officials. Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in audit Essay local newspapers in Uganda transformed the proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of funds diverted away by local officials correlated to the distance of a school from Analoge - contine with paper writing, a town where there was a newspaper outlet. All of these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is audit one of optimism.

This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an international agenda to defeat and deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to hide. We need to end the use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and anonymous way to cpm homework help, hide their loot and move it across borders. We need to drive out the rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance. We need to expose the Brand, theft or misuse of taxpayers’ money by cpm homework verbs list opening up budgets and Brand assignment Essay procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the “pockets of high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and construction industries.

At the heart of all of this is international co-operation on transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to help, give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies. But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of audit assignment Essay, ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to help do my analysis of before the rain, journalists in every country. His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over assignment Essay the world. Given the sheer quantity of data to online settlers, get through, networks of civil society, activists and journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to holding people to account. Second, we need to deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose.

That means bringing the perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and send them to jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from audit assignment, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to prove the guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the burden of proof so the accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in verbs list Singapore, regardless of whether the corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is Brand audit assignment as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore. College Writing Answers. But what I believe we can all agree is assignment Essay that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and do business as usual in our countries.

That’s why we in the UK are looking closely at the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and spider pics massachusetts secretary why I urge other countries to audit assignment, do the same. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from corruption. I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and create a trusted system to return it to essay writing pics massachusetts secretary, its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to their development prospects. It would also begin to address the sense of injustice that many in audit this book have so powerfully described.

Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for corruption to do my, thrive by driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to fester for Brand assignment Essay so long. This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the ‘pirate sector’ by creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by me do implementing personal marketing embracing the audit Essay, vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries’ institutions and verbs professions. From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of probity and honesty. Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the power of Essay, new technologies to deliver greater accountability for public money and Analoge to digital with college paper public services.

In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of assignment Essay, payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of this will only really work if political leaders have the courage to stand together, to to digital - contine the order college paper, speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the strengthening and co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to Brand assignment, put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of political leadership. As David Walsh writes: “No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for the first american change. It would be a crime not to Brand audit Essay, seize it.” I intend to seize it, with the support of all the Analoge - contine with 214969224 college, authors in Brand audit assignment this book and together with the widest possible coalition of leaders from politics, business and civil society. Help List. Together we are against corruption. And together we can defeat it. 2. Brand Audit. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption?

Corruption has in many ways become the defining issue of the 21st century, just as the 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Today a majority of the world’s nations accept the legitimacy of democracy and at buy research paper online settlers, least pretend to hold competitive elections. Audit. What really distinguishes political systems from paper online the first settlers, one another is the degree to assignment, which the buy research paper, elites ruling them seek to use their power in audit assignment Essay the service of a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy. What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of services writing pics massachusetts, government which, in turn, is greatly affected by levels of Brand audit, corruption. To Digital - Contine The Order 214969224 College Paper Writing. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of ways. Brand Audit. Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the online the first, lifestyles of elites at the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to spend their time gaming the system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth.

Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto audit power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the prospects of services writing spider pics, democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the reality of democratic choice. However, the Essay, phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. It is need help do my analysis of before the rain remarkable that, for all of the academic effort put into Essay, the study of corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and help me do personal in your life how it relates to the broader problem of good government. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon.

Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool. I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. Assignment Essay. 11). The first point to note is that corruption is a modern phenomenon. Top Custom Writing. The very terms ‘public’ and ‘private’ did not always exist. In the European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of their patrimony. Audit. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to cpm homework verbs, his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about audit assignment Essay public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of cpm homework verbs list, ownership, but out of a kind of social contract by which he protected public interest – above all, the common interest in peace and security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of a collective public interest. Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the territories over which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to Brand, be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the Analoge to digital - contine with the order college, phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in which political leaders pretend to be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies.

But the reality is that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and assignment Essay their families at the expense of everyone else. A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is need help do my analysis of before the rain difficult to achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for Brand audit assignment this has to do with human nature. College. Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of favouritism towards family and friends. The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is Brand audit assignment not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to socialise people into different forms of top custom pics massachusetts secretary, behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). People who live in rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one.

But if most countries throughout most of Brand audit assignment Essay, human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to helper answers, the quality of Brand audit assignment, government. So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and levels of corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to it. The first is the need do my, creation and extraction of rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is technically defined as the difference between the cost of keeping a good or service in production and its price. One of the most important sources of rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out of the Brand assignment, ground.

Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Many of the most common forms of corruption revolve around a government’s ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and generates rents for the government; one of the most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by markets and to college writing ninth edition, see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of governments to Brand audit assignment, generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation.

The most obvious type of online settlers, a ‘good’ rent is a patent or copyright – by which the government gives the creator of an audit Essay idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of do my of before, time. Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by Essay allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment. While this opened the door to college helper ninth edition answers, considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. Assignment. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. To Digital. The creation and Brand assignment Essay distribution of rents by governments have a high degree of buy research online, overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism. Audit Essay. A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in exchange for the client’s loyalty and political support. The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984). Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972).

Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. Services Massachusetts. 4–7). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects. In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on the politician’s promises of broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Essay. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is good for the political community as a whole and not just what is good for need do my analysis the rain one individual voter.

Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in terms of assignment, broad concepts of justice or the general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to my essay implementing marketing life, individuals but to broad classes of people. Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the standpoint of Brand Essay, social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that clientelism is actually an early form of democratic participation.

In the United States and other countries, it was a way of mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system. It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the college writing helper answers, politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in return for political support. In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to audit assignment Essay, provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for the first getting out the vote, but morphs into Brand audit assignment, misappropriation. A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is top custom essay writing pics massachusetts secretary between corruption and low state capacity.

‘Anti-corruption and good governance’ has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents. Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Brand. Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the human, material and organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out their mandates effectively and essay spider secretary efficiently. It is linked to the skills and knowledge of public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and authority to carry out their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to bribery and theft. Low levels of corruption and audit assignment Essay high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. But getting to good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to better understand differences between the effects of corruption in countries around the world. Help Verbs. In the World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in the 47th percentile with respect to control of corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of assignment, Romania (World Bank 2014). On the buy research online settlers, other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity. In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in Essay the 55th and Ghana is in the 44th (World Bank 2014).

This validates the common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to Analoge to digital with 214969224 college paper, year. The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to Brand audit, overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and setting formal recruitment and my essay implementing marketing in your promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in rich countries with very different histories. More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures – that is, increasing the monitoring of agent behaviour and audit Essay creating positive and negative incentives for better compliance with the institution’s goals.

This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes. Since governments cannot be trusted to help, police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour.

For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in audit Essay punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and help me do my essay implementing marketing in your life personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and Brand audit assignment contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the me do life, paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and thereby lower growth. There is a single truth underlying the indifferent success of Brand assignment, existing transparency and accountability measures to control corruption. The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail.

Corruption in its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about good government or setting up formal systems designed to verbs, work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. That is why transparency initiatives on their own often fail. Citizens may be outraged by news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. The mere existence of a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to do the Brand Essay, job. Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in buy research paper the first american settlers jailing corrupt officials have done so only because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens.

The political nature of corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). American politics in that period was not too different from politics in contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the voter base and presenting politicians with the challenge of mobilising relatively poor and audit Essay poorly educated voters. Analoge - Contine The Order. The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the Brand audit Essay, creation of a vast clientelistic system. Elected politicians appointed their supporters to help verbs list, positions in audit assignment the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon. This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for the next century, from the highest federal offices down to local postmasters in help every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of audit, corruption, particularly in help implementing in your cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. This system began to Brand assignment, change only in the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of help me do implementing marketing, government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over political connections. Following the assassination of the newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the Pendleton Act.

It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of merit. Even so, expanding the number of Brand audit assignment, classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the First World War. Essay Services Writing Spider Pics Massachusetts. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of Brand, features of both corruption and college writing ninth answers the reform of corrupt systems. First, the incentives that led to the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political. Politicians got into Essay, office via their ability to helper edition, distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in favour of something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. Essay. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in cpm homework help favour of a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system.

It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in audit assignment the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and analysis the rain a grassroots organisation of civil society groups. The American experience is suggestive of how progress in Brand assignment the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it. Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of groups opposed to an existing system of corrupt politicians.

Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Help Implementing Marketing In Your. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to assignment, another feature of Analoge to digital with 214969224 writing, anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity. The period that saw the audit, emergence of an top custom essay services writing spider pics industrial economy was also characterised by Brand huge increases in levels of education – particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of professionals who worked for both private businesses and the government. One of the first government agencies to be modernised in the late 19th century was the US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the top custom essay spider pics massachusetts secretary, United States. The latter, in turn, were the product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of Brand, 1862 that sought to help do my analysis of before the rain, increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. Audit. It would not have been possible to reform the old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of 214969224 paper writing, university- educated officials. Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies – in Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere – was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and secondary education to poor countries and have largely given up on supporting elite education. The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of state modernisation in countries that became rich in earlier eras.

These general observations about historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle. Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of audit assignment, economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of Analoge to digital college paper, economic growth – neither Britain, nor the United States in the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in poorly governed societies and will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible. Brand Audit Assignment Essay. This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the college writing ninth edition answers, fact that rentier states and Brand Essay kleptocratic governments are the source of international conflict and instability in today’s world. But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the college writing helper ninth, historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. 1984. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of Brand audit assignment, Trust in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fukuyama, F. 2011. The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution.

New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. 2014. Political Order and Political Decay: From the top custom services writing pics massachusetts secretary, Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of audit assignment, Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Johnston, M. 2005. Syndromes of Corruption.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. 2009. Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries?

World Development, 37(3), pp. 521–32. Buy Research Paper. Mauro, P. Audit. 2002. The Persistence of college writing answers, Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No. 02/213. Piattoni, S. Brand Assignment. 2001. Clientelism, Interests and need do my essay analysis Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Brand. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scott, J. 1972.

Comparative Political Corruption. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Cpm Homework Help Verbs List. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators. Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at audit assignment Essay, Stanford University and Director of its Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law.

His book, The End of History and need essay the rain the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of audit assignment Essay, Political Order and essay analysis Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is audit concentrated in pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in particular times. Among industries, natural resource extraction and to digital with paper construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. This is partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise.

Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to audit assignment Essay, periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in corruption indices. More pertinently, there is good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in corruption in top custom writing recent decades. Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort. Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free. Denmark is currently seen as the least corrupt place in the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is concentrated in pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of this, pockets of Brand audit Essay, corruption have proved to me do my essay personal life, be highly persistent: the same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for many years.

Similarly, honesty is persistent. In the first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. This persistence is not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and Brand Essay so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier.

In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest. But change is possible. Until well into the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt. Positions were bought and sold and contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Help Me Do Implementing Personal Marketing In Your Life. Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change. Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to competitive examinations.

A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the nation became the pinnacle of social prestige and Brand audit assignment self-worth. By the late 19th century, the paper the first, British Civil Service had become honest and audit assignment Essay competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of a properly thought-through strategy. But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about. Societies do not have to wait for military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things – closing off the major opportunities for corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for private gain – happened together. These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is need help do my essay analysis much that societies currently beset by audit corruption can do for themselves. However, the globalisation of business and social networks has created an important role for international action.

Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and top custom services writing pics massachusetts secretary international initiatives. There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for corruption. Equally, there is much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain. This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Brand Audit Assignment. Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and breaking out of it is not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to attempt. It can help those societies that are still struggling with the college, problems that Britain faced in the 19th century.

Britain has already done much to make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to ‘follow the money’. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in ‘shell’ companies and offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the way in dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to improve company transparency. Britain has rapidly changed from being part of the problem to being a pioneer of the Brand assignment Essay, solution, but quite evidently following the money is subject to a weakest-link problem. Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is vital that all the major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for verbs those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to require all companies that wish to do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. Audit. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors. In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to cpm homework, the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to a corrupt sector. In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement.

Meanwhile the EITI is becoming the assignment Essay, established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts. There is Analoge - contine with college paper now an Brand assignment Essay equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to top custom massachusetts, increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of companies and their employees for bribing their way into contracts. Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged. This is Essay why the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to such co-operation is a race to the bottom that the businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of cpm homework help verbs, scope for contributing to the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of office. Take, for example, tax administration, which is fundamental to effective government. In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of corruption.

As a specific example, consider the administration of Brand assignment Essay, Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes. But in Analoge with the order paper several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Brand audit assignment Essay, Democratic Republic of the college ninth edition, Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of audit assignment, extorting money for themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). Analoge - Contine With Writing. VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to corrupt tax officials. It works by firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only Brand audit paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in writing helper edition answers addition to the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out more than the assignment, sales tax component of VAT is paying in. Clearly at the core of this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to the public good of generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. With The Order Paper. How might Britain, and other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception? Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in adhering to group norms.

Hence a practical way of audit, changing the behaviour of corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers. Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the family. Need Help Do My Essay Analysis. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to Brand Essay, the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to their own conduct and therefore disloyal. A useful way of buy research online the first, changing this state of affairs is to twin those tax administrations in which corruption is endemic with administrations in Brand audit countries that are not corrupt. Buy Research Paper Online American. Twinning could involve regular secondments of staff in both directions and the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at Brand audit, various ranks.

The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of need do my, technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. The new network exposes the official to the potential of a new identity as a member of a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards. It exposes the official to a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for Brand audit assignment the provision of core public services. And it exposes the official to college helper edition, a new norm of ‘good’ conduct. A ‘good’ tax inspector is Brand assignment no longer one who raises a lot of money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the tax code to make the help list, rest of government feasible. Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is not the end of the story, but it is an Brand Essay essential step. The other key step is to tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is buy research paper going to change theirs? Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al. 2014). Brand Audit Assignment Essay. A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it.

One way to need do my analysis the rain, create the common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is unlikely to audit assignment, persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the cpm homework help verbs list, co-ordination problem is for all the staff in an entire unit to be exposed to the international network at the same time. Audit Essay. Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the Analoge to digital the order, same tension between old and new networks and hence the same choice. There are already a few examples of institutional twinning. For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to work with tax authorities in some low-income countries. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of England used to host an annual meeting for Brand assignment governors of African central banks. But the scope for twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in governments and in the wider society. Around the help me do implementing personal marketing life, world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of health and a ministry of finance.

OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries. Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of relationship based on Essay peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in with 214969224 college paper writing low-income countries try to audit assignment, keep donor agencies ‘out of their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. An important example is the regulation of utilities such as electricity. Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for with 214969224 college writing infrastructure. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of companies and voter support for politicians.

In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades. The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of audit assignment Essay, independence, transparency and impartiality. New regulatory agencies would benefit from essay massachusetts secretary, becoming part of this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the OECD. But membership of the OECD is audit confined to the governments of high-income countries.

Admirably, the organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the governments of poor countries, for example, by the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015). Writing Edition. This is designed to embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in the tax authorities of poor countries on secondment for several months: not to Brand, train but to work on the job. Top Custom Services Spider Pics Massachusetts. An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into the potential for such secondments to audit Essay, be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres! More seriously, while the buy research paper online the first settlers, OECD initiative is excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to Brand assignment, forge global links and there is helper edition answers no other international institution with the remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and poor ones. Perhaps this role should become a core function of Essay, national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of paper online the first settlers, government. Twinning has the potential to Brand audit Essay, be extended well beyond government: part of the ‘big society’ can be direct links between the top custom services spider, civil society organisations and Brand Essay their counterparts in poor countries.

Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to helper ninth answers, needs. But an important part of tackling corruption is resetting the cultures of Essay, professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. For example, in many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for teachers not to show up for lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values. The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for Analoge to digital - contine the order paper writing corruption and reducing the prestige and satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other. As the difficulties and risks of Brand, corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against corruption complement international actions. One major way of squeezing out corruption is to remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to services writing spider pics massachusetts secretary, foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding.

Competition within rule-based markets is an audit important part of the system of checks and marketing balances that constrain public officials from the abuse of office. Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in Brand assignment Essay late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by implementing in your an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition. Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour. Not all corruption is directly financial.

Electoral corruption is highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and Essay fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to writing helper edition, raise standards of electoral conduct. An international initiative against corruption provides an Brand audit opportunity for national actions and international actions to cohere. Analoge To Digital - Contine The Order Paper. As people recognise that the calculus of risks and rewards and the sources of prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of Brand audit assignment Essay, corruption do happen and it is possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government and one of the world’s leading and help verbs list award-winning development experts. His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is audit assignment Essay Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013). 4. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption.

Sebolu is the Sotho word for a ‘spoilt thing’. It is a derogatory word used in Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption. Someone who is corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for such a person. 3. Top Custom Essay Writing Spider Pics. In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the Brand, word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in many indigenous African languages.

It never has – it wasn’t needed. The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo. The concept of shuffling papers in a government office in a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and then coming home rich and wearing the ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the cpm homework help list, local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in the village is often lionised. Generosity of assignment, heart, even to strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Africans generally.

East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence. Ufisadi brings to mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the reputation of the hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless. However, it does not have the my essay personal marketing in your, same resonance for citizens of the region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is Brand audit assignment one of the least corrupt African countries according to Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, ‘perceptions of corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of Analoge - contine with 214969224 college, leaders involved in theft’, is one of the Brand assignment, most resented attributes of officialdom to Africans at large. Recent research on the experiences and perceptions of Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over the last 12 months. Top Custom Pics. And in Brand audit assignment Essay 18 of the 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption. The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal.

Citizens in help me do marketing life these countries were some of the most positive in audit assignment Essay the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015). In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. Paper The First Settlers. People understand the terms ‘theft’ and ‘thief’, but corruption is a modern and Brand assignment ambiguous concept to many Africans. As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into a family of thieves.” The task therefore is two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to to digital 214969224 college, deter and punish corruption, and we need to actually change the culture, so that the concept of corruption is Brand assignment Essay both understood and recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the shame and cpm homework social sanctions directed against Brand audit Essay, this kind of theft and help list thief need to be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to fight corruption.

This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for Brand Essay example, that the thief is too embarrassed to ninth edition, go to church on Sunday because of the looks they’ll get. As such, the whole approach to Brand Essay, corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on to digital - contine 214969224 college paper writing it at the national and global levels. Integral to this are the principles of Brand audit Essay, legal authority and equality before the law. The equality component is essential: the rule of law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of help verbs, race, creed or class. Audit Assignment Essay. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and legal processes and practices. Each derives its legitimacy from history and the traditional ways in which meaning is made.

By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in a constant state of flux in top custom essay writing pics massachusetts a dynamic world. Our success depends on how effectively we bring and use them together in assignment Essay the fight against corruption. We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet. 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded. Cpm Homework List. In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by the multilateral and bilateral development institutions. This culminated, in 2003, in Brand assignment Essay the drafting and ratification by a host of countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015).

The following decade saw the rise of the do my of before the rain, BRIC nations2 and assignment rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and commerce. At the same time, the struggle against Islamic extremism captured the attention of buy research online settlers, policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in the scale and complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to audit, be returned urgently to the heart of the global development agenda. Top Custom Essay Writing. It needs to be part of the DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and Brand assignment how they interact on the global stage. This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to hollow out key governance institutions in some countries. This includes the defence and security sector and areas of social policy such as health and me do my essay implementing in your education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to offer the poor, in particular.

The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to Brand audit assignment, identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds – for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks – to begin to my essay marketing life, question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself. This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector – in particular, banks, law firms and Brand audit Essay auditing firms – and deepens the challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of things’, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by the service sector. The growth of the help personal, latter has been buoyed by the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the internet and Brand audit assignment an increasing variety of communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the ‘old economy’ where the world’s products are created, built, sold and moved. At the same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in influence, particularly over the last two decades.

By design, the ‘pirate’ sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on. Although it can involve an individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into college edition answers, sophisticated entities. These can operate with the Brand audit assignment, same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in me do personal in your life multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings – to Brand assignment Essay, allow them to act outside the law for the duration of their business in a country. Buy Research Paper The First. The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’.

The units are able to audit assignment Essay, move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down. Theirs is the Analoge to digital - contine with college paper, euphemistic language of ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and assignment ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to the relations of ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to move resources around the help verbs list, world at the touch of a button. As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in audit cross-cultural contexts. They are the entities that ‘get things done’ in a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for a profit and not a social currency that helps make trade and writing helper ninth edition commerce flow more smoothly within the law. 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action.

So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of vested authority for private gain. In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013). Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to Brand assignment, quantify the cost of essay services spider pics secretary, graft in lives (McNair et al. 2014). Estimates show that the cost of corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear.

At the same time, the complexity of the legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and audit assignment other illicit activities – that the genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially. Indeed there is Analoge to digital 214969224 writing almost an unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and Brand assignment auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of demands that compliance has placed upon business. As a result, the cpm homework help, temptation for some businesses to rely on the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in itself” (Cassin 2015). Brand Assignment. This means we are at a critical juncture. It calls for a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the need do my essay of before the rain, fall of the Berlin Wall. Corruption’s resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and people’s confidence in freedoms and systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about creating an Essay International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). It’s proposed this could have the - contine with 214969224 college paper, kind of powers granted to international weapons inspectors to target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and Brand assignment Essay cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of law and help the rain democracy.

The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the global networks of corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and Essay environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on. They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a ‘cleaning out of the stables’. 4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction.

To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the help analysis of before, rule of audit assignment Essay, law must go hand in hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the corrupt – the thieves – are shamed for what they do. Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions – which inform what is acceptable behaviour – is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is Analoge to digital 214969224 being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the developing world. The release by WikiLeaks of US diplomatic cables in 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to Brand audit assignment, the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of regions such as the Middle East. The reverberations of this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by leaders – in both the private and corporate sectors – have created a level of need do my the rain, criticism from the Brand audit Essay, public that is unprecedented in some countries. This is especially the case for the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the most. Presidents have been forced to step down and with writing others turned into lame ducks while still in audit Essay office by dramatic mass expressions of cpm homework verbs list, discontent boosted by social media.

In this sense the change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily – in many places. The outcome is uncertain. Assignment. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo. This is, in need help do my essay analysis part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the public’s lack of trust and Brand audit assignment confidence in them, especially that of their younger citizens. They also now appreciate that, in this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and unethical relationships with the cpm homework help verbs list, ‘pirate’ and private sectors. In addition to audit assignment Essay, institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in help implementing personal marketing in your life tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. However, for these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to apply, with equal force across the Brand assignment, different regions of both the developed and cpm homework list developing world. To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to Brand audit, prosecute the corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and censure for anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures.

They need to be seen as bobolu. They need to feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into to digital - contine 214969224 paper, the supermarket – as much to Brand audit, set an example to others as to punish the individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. John Githongo is the me do my essay implementing, CEO of assignment, Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for 19 years. This includes work in help civil society, media, government and the private sector. Cassin, R. L. 25 November 2015. Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, it’s now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. 2013.

Illicit Financial Flows from assignment, Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. Help My Essay Implementing Marketing In Your Life. 2014. The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. London: ONE.

OECD. January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Audit Assignment Essay. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group. 2015. The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Buy Research Settlers. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho.

Available online. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Brand assignment Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Writing Ninth Answers. Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption.

The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of audit, angry people on the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of Moldova. While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and college writing helper ninth answers Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the politicians were to blame for the theft of almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in disarray. Investigations are ongoing. But the Brand audit, Organized Crime and cpm homework help Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the audit Essay, iceberg, in a country where many more billions of dollars in ‘black’ money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the help of corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). We believe that the citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and need do my essay the rain their activities. Regrettably, this story is audit Essay not unique. At the OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and to digital college writing Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011).

The power of Essay, these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the least vulnerable approach to conduct their illicit activities, whether in essay pics massachusetts narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. The problem for national law enforcement is that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders. Assignment. Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time. Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and replaced by cpm homework verbs new ones. Yet alongside the advantages available for criminals of operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to Brand assignment, track them down, there are also disadvantages that the college writing ninth answers, clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them. Assignment. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on – conducting business as usual?

Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the need do my essay analysis of before the rain, quality of information is there and supported by tools that allow proper analysis. Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the Brand audit Essay, emerging discipline of data journalism, to identify the patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals can’t predict the future of open data Transparency is the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials. Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of them go to help life, great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world. At OCCRP, we’ve found and exposed networks of audit assignment, companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom. In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Online American Settlers. Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing.

They often work for what we call the ‘criminal services industry’ – the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the needs of Brand Essay, criminal clients. Help Verbs List. But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to Essay, hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the me do my essay in your, main investors in Eastern and Central Europe. Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes. But there is hardly a country in the region – from the former Yugoslavia to Russia and beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change. Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in Brand many instances, came across the names of beneficial owners the real owners of the company – who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny. Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to arrests and resignations.

Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in essay services pics business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to conceal their identity. In addition to this, the Cyprus registry is Brand assignment relatively expensive to use and searchable only by company name. This poses a serious problem for paper american settlers investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an individual’s name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency. Yet even in Brand assignment Essay countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of companies that is free of charge and allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015). But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for criminal groups and writing helper ninth edition corrupt politicians. And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013).

Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the news. Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to audit Essay, obscure the identity of the real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). Help My Essay Implementing. In a global economy, this isn’t just an issue for New Zealand. Brand Audit Assignment Essay. In 2016, the UK Government is implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to help list, enable researchers and other interested parties to access information on individuals with an interest in more than 25% of a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the Essay, way it is run. It matters because well-structured and accessible databases can be goldmines for college writing helper investigators and members of the public. In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the Panama registry of companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). Brand Audit. This was the catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world. Top Custom Writing Pics Secretary. This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of Brand assignment, dollars. 5 : The same principle applies to other official databases.

For example, court records, government spending and tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for data to services spider massachusetts, find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of company information and databases has to be accompanied by effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and audit assignment Essay usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the me do implementing life, most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in assignment a country to verbs, identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and increase the Brand audit Essay, costs they incur. Cpm Homework Help Verbs. Law enforcement must also jump on board the open data train and take advantage of advances in technology in order to keep pace with the assignment Essay, criminals.

Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to paper american settlers, master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime. Brand Essay. While it is true that data obtained in cpm homework verbs list informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for Brand assignment the investigative process. Verbs List. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years. Say, for example, that the police in the UK need information on a company based in Russia. Audit Assignment. They have to services writing spider, file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out Brand audit, that the Russian company is owned by help a Cyprus limited firm. Brand Assignment Essay. It might take another year to identify the next owner in a nested structure.

Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the stocks is not registered or is a proxy who doesn’t know the real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Help Of Before. Compare this with the adaptability of organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. In the Essay, international space governed by Analoge to digital with the order college writing weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. Assignment Essay. While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by strict local rules, national and essay writing massachusetts legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to hamper law enforcement. Brand. Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at need help do my essay analysis of before, odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. Brand Audit Assignment Essay. There are, to be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in a number of countries as a result of top custom services spider pics secretary, co- operation between law enforcement agencies. Audit. This did not necessarily prevent the paper the first, mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and Brand audit journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network.

Investigative reporting is – and can be even more – the natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog. It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes. Owing to do my, limited human resources and a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised. However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians.

With the stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions. Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to be repeatedly imported and exported and are always looking for new territories in which to generate profit. When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. It takes a network to monitor a network. Brand Assignment. International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets. However, such is the scale of the problem and the ubiquity of - contine with the order 214969224 writing, organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only audit scratching the surface.

What journalists can do is share with colleagues in other countries details of the patterns of crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by cpm homework help a set of companies with their headquarters on a particular street in audit Belize City, Belize. Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for in the company registries of other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the group’s activities in those territories too. In future, with the proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the development of buy research paper online the first american settlers, specific algorithms.

Crime groups will inevitably react by altering their activities to avoid detection. Brand Audit Assignment Essay. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and time. Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over the world. The result could be that the public has earlier and need help analysis of before the rain reliable information about who the Brand audit Essay, real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of Moldova with an uncertain future. To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and college helper edition answers programmers, who need to employ and create new advanced investigative techniques on Brand audit assignment Essay top of help me do implementing personal in your life, massive amounts of data. Assignment Essay. At the same time, activists and governments need to push for buy research paper online the first settlers more transparency, quality and common standards in Brand audit open data. Paul Radu is the paper settlers, Executive Director of the Brand audit, Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and corruption in Eastern Europe.

He is also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and has received many international awards for college helper ninth his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Spring again in the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against corruption. Deutsche Welle. Available online. Funk, T. M. 2014. Brand Assignment. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and help me do personal marketing in your Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center. Available online.

Government of Panama. January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies. Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. The Proxy Platform. The Reporting Project. Available online. Brand Audit Assignment Essay. Media Ownership Project.

January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online. Paper American Settlers. Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013. Taylor Network Back in Business. Audit Assignment Essay. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and college ninth answers Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015. Grand Theft Moldova.

Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index. Available online. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. It’s February 2015 and I am in Kano, northern Nigeria.

Not three months back, in Essay the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the ninth, Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town. The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the Essay, public square. I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and a court administrator – trying to work out the mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of countries. We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the life, money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for the extra fees they pocket. “Sarah,” the Brand assignment, prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about money all this time. But this isn’t just about money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. I’m stopped cold.

I imagine the girl. She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from essay services spider secretary, school each day with her friends, the white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns. Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over Brand assignment the edge. He would kill that judge if he could. Cpm Homework Help Verbs List. And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it. I could suddenly understand how it happens. I could see how the corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration – like that of many governments around the world – was itself helping to generate the terrorist threat.

The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a person’s basic humanity that can spur an Brand assignment enraged response. It is buy research paper these connections – between government corruption and terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. Corruption is one of those consensual topics. No one would argue it’s a good thing. International charities and multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years. Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Such protests have resulted in audit assignment the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the help list, ballot box. That’s what happened in Brand Essay Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in this volume – gained an upset victory in March 2015 elections over the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising.

And yet, when push comes to shove in Analoge to digital with the order 214969224 paper bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption. If an international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on Brand audit Essay delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against corruption in college helper answers the host country for fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled. If the objective is Brand assignment a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of doing business’. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and buy research paper the first american settlers growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: “It’s just the way people do things over there. Who are we to impose our norms?” These and audit Essay other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion. Pics. Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of Brand, Westerners actually argue in favour of writing helper ninth answers, it. Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security. Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against terrorism.

His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights. And so the kleptocratic practices of his network of audit assignment Essay, cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to rake in extorted bribes and buy research paper american blocked off every avenue of recourse – none of that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in the fight against terrorists. Audit Assignment Essay. This common framing is particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is helping to drive many people into the folds of extremist movements and indeed lies at need essay analysis of before the rain, the root of audit Essay, many of today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015). The purported trade-off between security and corruption is college a false dichotomy. Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade.

In the spring of 2009, a delegation of elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of audit assignment, Kandahar. This happened often. I was one of the only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at college helper ninth answers, my gate. When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government? The Government doesn’t hear them.

The Government doesn’t do anything for them. It’s just there to Brand audit, fill its pockets, nothing else. Help Implementing Personal In Your. If the assignment, Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation won’t improve.” 7. A few days later in the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in top custom services pics Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is thieves. They should put the screws in them, call them on Brand audit assignment the carpet and demand accounts.” 8. I heard this refrain again and again. Analoge The Order College. Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’. The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the Government. This assessment was corroborated by interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale.

A similar picture emerges from Nigeria. When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the Brand audit assignment Essay, Nigerian police is one of the personal in your life, most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010). Audit Assignment. 9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the violations by government agencies against the people. Cpm Homework Help Verbs List. Finally they could stand up and challenge. They were claiming their rights.” 10. Extremism isn’t the only form that backlash against corruption takes. Across the Arab world in 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to autocratic governments, the prosecution and Brand Essay imprisonment of corrupt officials, and the return of college ninth, stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully.

Some analysts see the expansion of extremism, from Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Essay Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to break the my essay personal in your, grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015). Ukraine seems as culturally and historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and Brand audit assignment Essay a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the need do my analysis the rain, Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to that revolution has been the first major East–West stand-off since the end of the audit assignment Essay, Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of territory and the displacement of more than a million people.

In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of college ninth edition, today’s most dire security crises. The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is Brand audit assignment it about corruption that should drive people to such extremes? Four elements of corruption in college writing ninth edition answers its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on victims; their lack of recourse; the Brand audit Essay, structure and sophistication of corrupt networks; and the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in the West often underestimate in thinking about corruption is the assault on victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the only way of gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution. In studies of violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in paper online the first the United States, insult or humiliation is Brand Essay found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011). 11. Given the obvious connections between religion and morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in religious terms. “Our leaders are bound by religious duty to do the right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on help analysis of before the rain the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. We would have a fair and just society.” 13.

Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse. As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Kandahar – put it in defining the word ‘corruption’, “If the district governor takes all the development budget and Brand assignment Essay only gives the people a tiny bit, and I want to complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. Deprived of any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the buy research paper online the first settlers, founders of our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and Brand audit assignment Essay the American and Analoge - contine with college writing French revolutions were all bloody affairs. Brand Assignment. Period documents from these milestones in democratic development indicate that in none of them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006). 15. The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of - contine with the order 214969224 college, corruption as it currently exists in audit assignment Essay dozens of countries – how deeply it is do my analysis of before the rain embedded in state machinery. It’s not the work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in Brand audit court. The kind of severe corruption that is common today is systemic. It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. They use those instruments to serve their aims – which largely boil down to personal enrichment.

In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at Analoge with the order, all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations. Weaknesses in state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power. Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the likelihood of a coup and because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on Brand Essay vivid display in 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge.

In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into help implementing marketing, bludgeons to audit Essay, force compliance. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into their action. But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16. A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in 2014: “There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all. So people make a connection in the tax office to pay less. But then you’ve broken the law and they know it, and you are afraid of the Government. The whole Government is set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on essay services spider pics the hook.” 17. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of aid – which may in fact be owned by relatives of government officials.

But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. Some within the Brand audit, government service in essay analysis Algeria in the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003). 18. For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply.

Finally, the amounts of money in play are truly obscene. Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the Brand Essay, increase has been palpable: “For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19. According to two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015).

The development implications of such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a country’s healthcare or water and sewage system, or to building a reliable and affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage. Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth. Essay Services Spider Pics Secretary. But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in audit assignment a sea of poverty also has a moral component – hence the easy link to religion. In the midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against top custom writing pics, the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an audit assignment anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and starving” (Arnade 2008, p. 99).

Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations. Still, even in a world in which trade-offs are real and Analoge - contine the order college paper cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered. Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. The international community must do a better job of weighing up the pluses and minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and facilitating their practices.

If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of host governments, the abused populations may come to associate the international community with the audit assignment, misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. 82). A more precise understanding of network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of with college writing, engagement. It is costly in human and other resources, not to mention politically uncomfortable, to assignment, draw up network diagrams – like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of terrorists or criminals – that map members of college writing, ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of blind engagement in such complex environments. A new, broader understanding of ‘corporate social responsibility’ is required. Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on assignment servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and cpm homework help list international construction contractors – are contributing to Brand audit, significant security threats in their own countries. It is in this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for donations to help list, localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for Brand audit Essay colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing.

Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at the expense of cpm homework verbs, their populations, as a necessary component of their nations’ economies. Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. Brand Assignment Essay. 2011. Buy Research Paper The First. Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Chayes, S. 2015.

Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton. Garcon, J. 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation. Available online.

Human Rights Watch. 17 August 2010. Everyone’s in on the Game: corruption and Brand audit assignment Essay human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Paper Online. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014.

Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online. Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from Brand audit assignment Essay, a natural experiment on college helper edition travel restrictions in assignment Essay the West Bank. American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp.

1006–1023. Muasher, M. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad. Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf). Available online. Essay Of Before. Nederman, C. ed. and trans. Audit Assignment Essay. 2002. Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of Pagula and William of Ockham.

Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. 82. Need Help The Rain. Robertson, G. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon. Sky, E. 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Iraq. Brand Assignment Essay. London: Atlantic Books. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015.

Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. Help Implementing Personal In Your Life. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). December 2012. Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC.

Available online. Waldman, M. Brand Assignment. 2010. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of top custom essay writing secretary, Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing – corruption in sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted. Thirty-eight years, the audit Essay, only job I’ve ever had.

Good times mostly. Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of paper american settlers, sport’s dark side. It seems hard to audit assignment Essay, believe now that the journey began with the expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. There is, of course, much to writing ninth edition, recall that was glorious, exciting and Brand Essay uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on ninth edition the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did. Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at audit assignment Essay, age ten should become the greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. Online American Settlers. Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened?

But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening. Brand Assignment. Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to - contine the order 214969224 college paper writing, extraordinary riches pouring into the game. That money needed to be managed and those in assignment Essay control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up. With great wealth comes power and that attracts the corruptible. Over the cpm homework, last 15 years, there has been the Brand assignment Essay, International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in essay writing spider pics massachusetts 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Brand audit assignment, Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an help me do implementing personal marketing athlete in a ˆ450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in audit assignment Essay the Olympics? That’s the allegation and the French police are on buy research paper online settlers the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). I’d been a sports reporter for ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988.

A run along a busy promenade in South Korea’s capital city on the final Sunday of Brand assignment, those Games remains a cherished memory. I never saw such an outpouring of national pride. Every expression seemed to say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and helper answers the world’s media highlighted the potential for the Olympics to be overshadowed by unrest. That never happened. The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on the track or, more accurately, in the room where the assignment, Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Inside the stadium, you feel it. Cpm Homework Help Verbs. It’s the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed. That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and 200 metres.

They will stand for Brand audit a long time yet, those records. They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. With her long and exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of buy research paper, Seoul’s greatest stars. I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Brand Audit Assignment Essay. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story. He got caught. Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in the morning and being pleased about top custom essay services spider massachusetts it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said.

The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I don’t know what we could have done to advance the story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to sport were being crushed by a will to win that recognised no boundaries. How bad was it? How bad is Brand audit assignment it? It was bad. It’s gotten worse. Part of that summer of ’88 was spent following the world’s greatest bike race, the Tour de France.

A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the to digital - contine with 214969224, Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by athletes to mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for sure. Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by the body that governed world cycling. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the Brand audit, race. The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the college ninth edition answers, race almost complete, the certain winner. 20. I met Rooks before the start, on the morning after Delgado’s bad news. “How do you feel about taking the yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in these circumstances,” he said. “But if he’s been cheating, and assignment Essay why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader.” “He has been the strongest rider in the race and deserves the victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was.

Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and no one is guiltier or more innocent than another. Cpm Homework Help. Strange how crushing that moment seemed. Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of Brand, sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for help verbs innocence” (Camus 1956, p. 54). We want sport to be believable. In the Brand audit assignment Essay, world of our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Alas, the buy research paper american, reality is Brand audit far from that and there is a rebellion. Folk are tired of the corruption. We want our innocence back.

You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering. At last. College Edition. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Whether police investigations in both sports lead to charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken. With so much cheating on the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. On the contrary, this is assignment Essay what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong. College Writing. No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. Essay. It would be a crime not to seize it. From where did the malaise come?

Do we blame the athlete because it is their body and what they put into it is ultimately their responsibility? Or the trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is buy research paper online settlers unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is Brand audit Essay now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the buy research paper american, world of Brand audit, privilege before abusing it. Now US federal officers and the Swiss and French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on.

Let’s turn the clock back to the genesis of one of sport’s most notorious cases of wrongdoing. It was July 1999. We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and beauty of the Vendee in western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon. He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. His domination of that year’s Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to online the first settlers, many the Brand audit assignment, most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is one thing, but to follow recovery with victory in perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of helper, all is Brand audit quite another. Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and writing ninth edition answers that it was the only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct.

But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by Essay those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to services spider pics secretary, his health. He never saw it like that. Many of the drugs used in restoring him to health, after he’d undergone four rounds of Brand Essay, chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France. And they weren’t that dangerous. But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the irresponsibility of not knowing.

The truth is that the truth was there, an inch or so beneath the surface. “If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is verbs better to exhume it rather than conceal the truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in Brand audit assignment the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1). Top Custom Essay Services Writing Secretary. That’s not bad advice. In the surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for Brand Essay clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the truth resting beneath the top custom essay services writing spider, surface. Audit. His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing – and dreams – off the miracle of his comeback. Those entrusted with the duty to protect the sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society. In the maelstrom of paper the first settlers, Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in what the assignment Essay, poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of disbelief’.

All the reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed. Those who tried to protest were shouted down. Helper Edition Answers. Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for Brand audit assignment the fraud of Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. Implementing Marketing. The drug of choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains.

Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to assignment Essay, identify it in urine. So EPO was a godsend for to digital with 214969224 college paper those who wished to cheat, and there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. Brand Audit Assignment Essay. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent.

All they had to do was freeze the the first american settlers, urine samples from Brand audit Essay, ’99 and re-examine them when the college writing helper answers, EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. Audit Assignment. It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating. But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Legend became Armstrong the to digital - contine with 214969224 writing, Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. Brand Audit. The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath. Help. Only when the Brand assignment Essay, police got interested in the minutiae of football’s governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the corruption in both organisations. Without subpoena powers, without the right to bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in top custom services writing the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on the Franco–Belge border at 6 am on a July morning in 1998.

With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the turning point. Blazer spilt the Essay, beans and writing helper edition plenty of barons were in trouble. French police are now doing the same for the IAAF, showing the most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to this? Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in an uncomfortable position. Few were prepared to do that. It was easier to look the other way, to travel on the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord.

This longing to indulge the Brand Essay, irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing – they and their sports have paid a high price. Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in ‘The Sound of Analoge to digital 214969224 college, Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964). How we have needed courageous people.

Take the audit assignment Essay, IOC and the first settlers the privileges of its members. Forget the courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets. Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at Brand audit assignment, the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldn’t dare to call hard work. As much as there is an services writing pics massachusetts secretary urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out Brand audit, that, among the major sports bodies, the IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to its members. This level of compensation does beg the question, ‘Who is serving whom?’ Is it the IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members?

There is a culture of entitlement that needs to end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to corruption: “If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing – like one was the logical extension of the cpm homework help verbs, other. Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the Brand audit, courageous whistle-blower who did so much to bring to light the doping secrets in Russian sport. He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To Digital - Contine With Paper. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the ticket and when it landed in Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014). Surprised and unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the audit assignment Essay, excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the message? (Walsh 2014).

For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by Pope Francis, leader of the me do implementing personal marketing, Catholic Church. When he turned up in Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to pick out his car in the motorcade of audit Essay, more than 20 SUVs and police cars. The Rain. He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Brand audit assignment, Vatican. “I’m visible to people and I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. “Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is buy research paper online american good for me and prevents me from being isolated. Audit Essay. I’m trying to stay and act the same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at answers, my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). Brand Audit Assignment. How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for the Pope, it is good enough for essay me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of fans upon whose loyalty their games are built? The IOC needs to lower those allowances and FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle.

Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at the top of every agenda. For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to say to sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of assignment Essay, some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable. The Wild West is no more. Help. To the athletes, we need to say that winning is not the most important thing. Brand. How you try to win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes? Governments need to buy research paper online the first american settlers, stop seeing the prowess of Brand assignment Essay, their athletes as a sign of national strength. For that too is another road leading to college writing answers, corruption.

Better in my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is how many of its citizens are active. We need to stop wearing our country’s success in sport like a badge of honour, for Brand assignment Essay it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the list, Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen. He reminds us of what matters, and what doesn’t. “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of countries and nationalism and audit assignment all of helper ninth answers, that. Things must be done that serve the planet not for the country. Same in sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the competition is fair, if the best one wins, that’s good.

If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and he is Brand audit assignment raised properly and he becomes an Olympic champion then he will be a hero. And it really will not matter what country he is from. Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. “I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne. There is a saying on a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Olympic movement. Let me just say it. - Contine With The Order College Writing. ‘The important thing in life is not the triumph but the fight. The essential thing is not to have won but to have fought well.’ This is my view of what sport should be” (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong. France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. 1956.

The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in Revolt. New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. 2015. Essay. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC. Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Pope Francis.

2013. Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Buy Research Paper Online American. Simon, P. Assignment Essay. 1964. The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster. Walsh, D. 14 December 2014.

Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015. Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. World Anti-Doping Agency. Essay Services Writing Secretary. 2016.

Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Available online. 8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to Brand audit, fight corruption in Nigeria. In the run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of addressing the challenges of security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the cancer of corruption from the system is the key not only to restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to freeing our enormous resources for urgent socio-economic development. Nigerians never cease to ask, for example, why it is that, at independence in 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapore’s at $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to $55,182 and Nigeria’s has increased to just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically.

But the most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not. What successful economies do is to need do my analysis the rain, keep it to a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the monster. Oil and gas are the Essay, second largest contributors to our GDP and account for more than 80% of essay services writing secretary, our foreign exchange earnings. Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Nigerian state to Brand, oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and even multinational oil company employees. As the services spider secretary, Financial Times reported, the enormity of the problem is audit captured in satellite imageries showing the top custom essay writing spider pics, illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015).

The abuse and misuse of public office for audit private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for the past 30 years. In the me do personal, last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of Brand audit Essay, life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the buy research online, nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the audit, 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and college writing helper ninth answers North Africa, and four times higher than those in Asia. Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012). According to the African Union’s high-level panel on audit Essay illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the African continent’s total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of me do implementing marketing in your, political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the Brand Essay, laws. As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of government, rules and cpm homework verbs regulations were ignored with impunity.

Procurements were made with a total disregard for Brand audit Essay due process, inflated by billions of help my essay implementing life, dollars and Brand assignment Essay poorly executed, and payments were made for to digital - contine with the order 214969224 college writing jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in virtually all the categories considered by various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and the rule of law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016). The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and audit contributes to online american settlers, governmental instability. Corruption erodes the moral fabric of society and violates the social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and Brand audit assignment Essay services the most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of law, thereby undermining our democracy. Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of paper online the first settlers, opportunities for audit Essay increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition. It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and help personal productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society – with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches – has led to frustration, hopelessness and despair, and laid the foundation for militancy and insurgency.

Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in the decay of assignment Essay, infrastructure, a lack of social services and the collapse of the Analoge - contine 214969224 college paper writing, institutions to fix them. The question then arises as to Brand audit Essay, why and help me do personal in your how Nigeria descended to Brand assignment, become such a sorry example of paper settlers, a rich yet poor country. There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the distortion of values and Brand audit assignment Essay the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is celebrated and emulated.

In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of checks on cpm homework help list the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and display of Brand assignment, wealth. Dislocation of communities and paper the first american urbanisation partly account for this. Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of resources and the protection of culprits. Brand. Third, there is a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by cpm homework verbs list virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society. Fourth, and most insidious, is the Brand assignment Essay, pervasive culture of impunity across the need help do my analysis of before the rain, social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the Essay, growth of the rule of law. Finally, the single biggest contributor to corruption in Nigeria is the lack of political will among the leadership of the country in the past to tackle it. There are sufficient laws in online the first american settlers the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. Assignment Essay. But the institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented. 8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and top custom essay writing massachusetts secretary demonstrable political will to do so.

Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of law requires us to be fair and just in audit Essay dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and help verbs list a strict adherence to due process – however painstaking the effort and Brand audit assignment however slowly the wheel of justice turns under this setting. Paper American Settlers. At the same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to our oath of office whereby we swore to assignment, do justice to all manner of people without fear or favour. Help Me Do My Essay Implementing Marketing. We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at all times to be beyond reproach in order to cast the first of any stones. Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to Brand assignment, be compared with our net worth on leaving office.

As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and regulations to ensure good governance in Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices. We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only need to strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the paper online the first, existing ones to do their jobs. We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of self-censorship by anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the reach of the law.

In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and demand side activism are key components. Most of our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and illiterate, do not make the Brand Essay, link between corruption and their lack of access to healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist. They are too poor, too dependent and too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments. We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at buy research paper online the first american settlers, the federal state and local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is Brand audit assignment a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the Legislature and massachusetts the Judiciary.

To tackle corruption, there is a need for all three to work together for a common purpose. Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and Essay all organs of government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Writing Secretary. Early in the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on audit assignment Essay Anti-Corruption – made up of experts and persons of integrity – to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and other interventions. Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of criminals and me do my essay implementing marketing life the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the Brand assignment, United Nations Office on Drugs and ninth edition Crime (UNODC) and other development partners. We also commit ourselves to Essay, compliance with the country’s international obligations under international treaties and conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). College Writing Helper Edition. 8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. These are the EFCC and the ICPC.

We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to a myriad of challenges, which include overlaps in mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and Brand assignment internal corruption. I believe a review of legislation is the first essential to reposition these institutions. For example, currently the ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in response to petitions from the public. We want to Brand, change that, revising the ICPC Act to increase the Commission’s powers to help verbs list, initiate investigations into cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the ICPC the Brand audit Essay, power to buy research paper online settlers, commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the Essay, case in writing helper ninth answers the US, UK and South Africa. Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Brand Essay. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of overlap with the the order 214969224 college paper, EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the Brand assignment, ICPC power to accept material assistance from international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to reduce overlap with the ICPC mandate.

Securing the forfeiture of to digital with the order college, illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is audit assignment a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the help my essay personal marketing, EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an Brand Essay arm of the EFCC, needs to be independent in order to enhance its operational autonomy. We intend to work with the Legislature to do my essay, implement all these necessary reforms. It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and Brand assignment data sharing. As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of havens for hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the scope of need help essay analysis, our mutual legal assistance agreements to audit assignment Essay, widen the net we cast to writing edition answers, recover illicit funds and secure the forfeiture of unexplainable assets. In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in assignment leveraging the legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of buy research settlers, Justice 2015). Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases.

Pursuant to action taken by the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against a former governor of a state were dismissed by a court in audit Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in the UK – based on the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of trials, especially of corruption cases, in our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an top custom essay services spider pics massachusetts average of 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in. It’s standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to challenge the jurisdiction of the Brand audit, court, requesting stay of buy research paper the first, proceedings and assignment appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to oblige the accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from help, investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons! However, with the passage of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to Brand audit Essay, see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015). The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of delivery of help verbs list, judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to assignment, ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of - contine the order 214969224 paper, conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and Brand audit assignment Essay those of members of implementing marketing life, their families, when they assume and subsequently leave public office.

It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the CCT. Yet in spite of the glaring and widespread corruption by Brand audit Essay political appointees and other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and helper ninth edition brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in 1960 was to allow the courts to treat proof that an audit Essay accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to me do my essay personal in your, the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in audit Essay breach of the paper online american settlers, Code (International Centre of Brand audit assignment Essay, Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). In its 36 years of paper online american settlers, existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago.

The CCB is fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is no requirement for public officers’ asset declarations to be published. So to lead by example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the same. Brand Audit. But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to verify the claims made in the thousands of assets forms submitted. Help Me Do My Essay Personal Marketing Life. There simply has not been the political will to fully fund or adequately staff and equip the CCB for the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to make the required appropriation. We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from Essay, our development partners in top custom essay pics secretary the areas of computerisation of the operations of the CCB and Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and audit assignment Essay facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the identity of help verbs, every account holder. Like the CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to adjudicate on breaches of the Code of Conduct by public officers, which were referred to it by the CCB. In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to Brand Essay, failure, applying its powers to me do implementing marketing in your life, impose sanctions – such as removal from office, bans from audit, holding public office and essay services writing pics massachusetts the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property – only to minor cases.

The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is peripheral except in cases like theft. Brand Assignment. But the buy research the first american, potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the police are no exception. Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt.

We are aware of this general perception of the Brand audit Essay, Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for its reform. The other institution that is critical to our ability to college helper ninth, successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt. Audit. As in other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to prove. From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the leadership of the Judiciary is aware of this general perception.

It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the odious nature of many decisions from the Bench. These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of need the rain, unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively. They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of judges, however, is the responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. Audit Assignment. There have been observations about the Council’s composition, the mode of appointment to it and how to make it broader-based in pics massachusetts representation. These are matters for the Judiciary to Essay, consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to cpm homework, strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally:

Addressing poor remuneration in the public service. Alongside our wider reforms of the public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for some categories of civil servants. A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about $300 a month. Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in audit the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the helper edition answers, ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to drastically increase the salaries of the accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. While this isn’t an immediate possibility for Brand audit us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to writing edition, finance some increases in Brand Essay critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of leaks.

However, there may also be need for a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the opacity in the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for corruption. Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and reconciling the amounts against consumption figures. Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and track oil theft. Increase the participation of Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the top custom essay pics secretary, biggest drains on the economy. Even before the Brand audit assignment, present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative.

For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the top custom services writing spider pics massachusetts, major expenditure heads. So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only Brand assignment Essay when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on paper settlers classes of travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and Brand assignment agencies. The Unit’s aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to ensure that due process is followed in Analoge to digital - contine the order college paper government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of Brand audit assignment, a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and income flow, we have recently reverted to cpm homework help, constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into Brand audit Essay, a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of Nigeria. As a result, we are now in a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in the management of government revenues, receipts and payments.

We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and reviewing the proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for which was N2.927 billion – all of it was spent on salaries. College Writing Edition. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. These include the National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to boost locally generated technology. In the same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped. I will conclude by reiterating that the immediate and audit Essay long- term benefits of curbing corruption in Nigeria are pretty obvious to us. In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in the adage that the journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. Online The First American. I have the will to Essay, take this first step. And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and create an enabling environment for the diversification of our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries.

These outcomes will encourage local and foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in the past decade. It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and cpm homework list hollows out militaries tasked with combating them. It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in Brand audit assignment Essay the Arab world in college writing edition answers 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015). It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the international community, to fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement. Brand Audit Essay. 2012. Bureau of Public Procurement. Available online.

Ezekwesili, O. Paper Settlers. 28 August 2012. Corruption, National Development, the Bar and the Judiciary. Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of Brand assignment, Justice. 2015. Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online. Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now!

Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). 2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). International Centre of buy research the first, Nigerian Law (ICNL).

1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Available online. Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. Brand Essay. 2010. Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf). Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Interview – Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations.

Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Transparency International. Buy Research Online The First. 2013. Brand Assignment. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013). Writing Helper Answers. Transparency International. 2016. Corruption by Country – Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). February 2015.

Track it. Stop it. Get it: Report of the High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from Africa. Africa: UNECA. Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015.

Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. Brand Audit Essay. html). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2016. UNODC’s Action against Corruption and Economic Crime. Available online. US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to essay services writing pics secretary, Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine.

Available online. US Department of Justice. 23 September 2015. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act). Wallis, W. 26 May 2015. Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times.

Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016. Audit Assignment Essay. GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Analoge - contine with the order 214969224 college Singapore (1960–2014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez). Yew, L. K. 2000. From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000.

UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of Brand assignment, procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature. But it is imperative we recognise that, in a number of helper edition answers, countries, corruption is not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of public governance. It is part and parcel of the system itself – reinforced by the fragmented nature of these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development. Audit Assignment Essay. If we’re to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from their intended uses.

But if the problem to solve in a country like Afghanistan is with the order 214969224 paper writing a lack of accountability, the actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented. Reforms from assignment, outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and Analoge with the order college paper temporary. In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots. This is because only the top political leadership can look across the different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in order to provide an audit assignment Essay effective agenda for reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and help me do external reformers.

But somebody must open the door. The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. In such countries, the assignment Essay, government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice. If the systemic character of corruption in these fragmented administrations is not understood, reforms become a game. Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement. Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of excitement before being forgotten. None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of need help essay analysis, institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for Brand audit Essay appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in the fight against corruption. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan.

9.3 Reforming corruption in services writing spider pics secretary fragmented accountability systems: the case of audit Essay, Afghanistan. Top Custom Spider Pics Secretary. By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the most corrupt countries on earth. Fifty years of audit assignment Essay, near constant conflict have destroyed both social and cpm homework help list institutional controls. The flood of money that poured into the country for reconstruction after the overthrow of the Brand assignment Essay, Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. Analoge To Digital The Order College Paper Writing. When the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an end to corruption and the impunity that surrounded it. The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. They had significant effects on national development. Brand Audit Essay. The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment. The departure of the help me do my essay implementing in your life, international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the large volumes of financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Government and donors agreed that the apparatus of corruption that had formed around the allocation of aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into a private sector led growth strategy.

Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and Brand assignment poor. As a country threatened by both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the government’s legitimacy is vital to maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the to digital with college paper writing, citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the Brand audit, public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014). 9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to need do my analysis, identify where corruption occurred. We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into a source of discord, distrust and exclusion.

As a result of assignment, land grabs, the private sector was denied access to property for american investment, while the poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and payment. The Ministry of Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of their appointments. Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of public resources. Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of assignment, this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in help implementing personal in your imports from Pakistan – but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015). Brand. Nor does the bribery stop at the border.

Studies of to digital - contine with the order 214969224 college paper, transport routes reveal that over assignment Essay a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes. Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the Analoge to digital with the order 214969224 college paper writing, early symptoms of the resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and the capture of that natural wealth by small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices. Brand Audit. Smuggling and help analysis of before narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and audit assignment global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and college writing answers dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and control over irregular migration from Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform. There is Essay no quick fix to end this type of need help do my essay the rain, systemic corruption. However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of where corruption happens to the processes by which government can abet or control corruption.

In Afghanistan, instead of being the Brand audit Essay, systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of justice have become the drivers that explain how corruption persists. Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to help do my essay of before, reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the Afghan Government’s efforts to reform the audit assignment Essay, procurement process. At its most basic, public procurement is how the government uses competition to get the public the best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and services may not seem an need help do my essay analysis the rain especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication. But procurement lies at the heart of Brand audit assignment Essay, what governments ‘do’. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for american between 10% and 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). And when public procurement is infected by Brand assignment Essay corruption, the effect on government performance and Analoge to digital - contine the order value to the taxpayer is catastrophic.

Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of Brand assignment, a fragmented and corrupt system of government accountability. Services Pics. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the inclusion of non-existent companies to give the appearance of competition when there is in Brand audit assignment Essay fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders. Rules to block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only ‘business’ is to provide access. Not all corruption in help me do in your life procurement takes place behind the assignment Essay, scenes. Threats of Analoge to digital - contine with the order 214969224 college paper writing, violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to Brand assignment Essay, set technical standards that only they can fulfil. Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an acid test of whether the new Government’s commitments to bring about systemic change will really be backed by political will and structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the Afghan Government’s strategy are the cpm homework help list, formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and Brand audit assignment Essay the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies.

Centralising procurement was not the only route to help verbs list, reform open to us, but it enabled us to tackle the structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive. Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the bureaucratic culture. 9.6 Building the machinery of reform. To underscore the top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to an end, the NPC is chaired by me, the assignment, President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Cpm Homework Verbs List. Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the Brand, second vice- president and the ministers for finance, economy and justice also attend the weekly council meeting.

Such high-levelparticipation is needed not just to send a symbolic message to the country at large, but also to present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of college writing, Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in professional procurement and who have the specialised expertise needed to understand the details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is spent on security, the Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts. Public transparency is built into the process. Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on Integrity. Minutes of our meetings and all decisions are placed on an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in government. The first major test of our work came in the security sector.

Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Government’s Ministry of Defence. In response to these allegations, the bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the contract and appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to review this and Brand audit assignment an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the the first american settlers, law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and starting over. Brand Audit Assignment Essay. Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption.

But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and help me do my essay in your police without ammunition and supplies in assignment the middle of an intense war. This is a strong example of how corruption in list procurement can have detrimental consequences for Brand audit assignment national security and the safety of our people. Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis. The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the results met procedural and value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on its public website. Me Do Marketing Life. The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the rule.

NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to squeeze out the corruption and ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the message to audit, our people of the implementing marketing in your life, Government’s commitment to reform. But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by audit assignment Essay the need to restore credibility. Me Do My Essay Personal Marketing In Your. We have climbed the foothills of audit assignment, reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. Help Analysis Of Before The Rain. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception.

Now that the political door has been opened to reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules. Better oversight and detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and Brand where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. Help Do My Analysis Of Before. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation. This is a significant challenge for us. Tackling the Brand, reform of large-scale procurement is technically complex. It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and college helper ninth experience. Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and construction – another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge.

Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by Brand assignment Essay deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries. Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of expertise. We need an entirely different model of how procurement happens. To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money. This is how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. For example, the education ministry can improve the quality of teachers and student learning instead of lobbying for more school construction. The health ministry can focus on cpm homework help verbs reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies.

The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the progress we have made on Brand audit assignment procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next? Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of essay analysis, punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is assignment no longer worth the risk. Until recently, the punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to the donor agencies. List. Our next task then is to make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the police and the prosecutors. Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected. The Government has not been able to move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked.

Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Government’s actions are beginning to end the regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits. Brand. In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from positions susceptible to bribery. Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by the Attorney General’s office. But accelerating the helper, pace of justice sector reform is audit clearly the Government’s next frontier. The other urgent next step is to deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists. Our experience shows that, to have any real chance of success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to need do my essay of before the rain, signal that the Brand audit assignment, necessary local and national will to american, fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the Government is taking reform seriously, the more the Government can count on Brand whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of impunity on which a culture of corruption thrives.

Over time, more and more ministry decisions and actions on Analoge to digital - contine with budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and Brand Essay modern media. Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the government conducts its business. As with procurement, top-level leadership is verbs needed to Brand Essay, crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. But that first step remains critical. This paper has argued an me do personal marketing in your life approach for how states can achieve transformational change in the fight against corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an example.

Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an electoral mandate to end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to assignment Essay, bring about national level reform. That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and help essay the rain systems that are facilitating corruption. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in and of itself, but the audit, result of cpm homework verbs list, fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for Brand Essay unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to diverse control systems, none of which had the capacity or reach to college writing ninth, compensate for the lack of state-managed oversight. Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the top.

This is not the only route that countries can follow. But the Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to bring an end to corruption in development. Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the experience to manage it. Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. Assignment. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to control corruption. Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the political acumen and will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system. As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of a war would have meant losing the war. But, because the governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an cpm homework help alternative arrangement could be developed.

Afghanistan has only audit assignment Essay just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to root out Analoge to digital with 214969224 college paper writing, corruption. It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at every level. It will be many years before the Government can claim success. But the strategy and roadmap for reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Brand Assignment Essay. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of poverty. Afghanistan’s citizens voted for a Government that would have the writing, courage and commitment to break the cycle of Brand Essay, corruption.

We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development. Asia Foundation. 2014. A Survey of the Afghan People. San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Available online.

Fund for cpm homework help Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications. Available online. Government of Afghanistan. Brand Assignment Essay. 2016. Need Help Do My Essay Of Before The Rain. Administrative Office of the Brand audit, President – National Procurement Authority.

Available online. Observatory of Economic Complexity. December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan. Available online. SELA. Top Custom Essay Pics. 2015. Public Procurement as a Tool for Brand audit assignment Essay Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA.

10. Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. Help Verbs. It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in our sporting history involved an audit Essay underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to the crease and rolled the ball down the with paper writing, pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not.

There was an audit Essay uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is sick of hearing about it, but it was telling. The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is right. It is ingrained in our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the world’s least corrupt countries. As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is a corrosive force, which – at its worst – diminishes faith in the rule of to digital the order 214969224 writing, law.

All of this impacts on economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for assignment Essay fair-minded people to prosper and for a country to to digital - contine with the order writing, support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is uniquely placed to protect itself from corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in their countries. Brand Audit Assignment Essay. We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on implementing marketing in your the rule of law in the places we sell them to. In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to Brand audit assignment Essay, be honest in paper online american how we do it. 10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. We have built our legal and Brand assignment Essay constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and cpm homework political practice. So, while it is based on Brand audit the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way. We tend to fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005).

And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of fairness. A good example of that is essay services our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a). Brand Essay. The Treaty of Waitangi is cpm homework help a founding document of New Zealand. Essay. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in help me do personal marketing New Zealand where all parties’ rights and interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b). But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of land and Brand audit assignment Essay resources, and through the delivery of apologies on behalf of the Crown. Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the right thing to do. It is this same embedded sense of help verbs, fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to take hold in New Zealand. New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that. I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of any issue that they have with my Government’s performance.

That is how it should be. As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and are expected to regularly account for our actions. New Zealand’s highly professional public service is expected to Brand assignment, act in accordance with the law, to Analoge to digital - contine with 214969224, be imbued with the spirit of service to the community and to give free and frank advice to ministers. The public service is politically neutral. That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party. This culture, which has been enshrined in Essay law, ensures that even as governments and - contine the order ministers change, a professional body of experts is always on hand to deliver on the agenda of the elected government.

10.2 Scrutiny of government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. As part of the audit Essay, gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and entrench the need of before, transparency of the Brand assignment, public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the ninth, Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to (Ministry of Brand, Justice 2015a). While there is buy research online the first always a degree of tension about where the line should be drawn, the oversight of the Office of the Essay, Ombudsman ensures that openness is writing helper maintained. (New Zealand was the audit, first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in Analoge - contine with paper the way information on the state of the government’s finances were reported, the audit, then Labour Government passed the Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to edition, operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b). For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an accurate picture of the public finances and Brand assignment the fiscal consequences of their policies. To Digital With The Order College. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards.

Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny. New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to audit and deal with allegations of corruption and misconduct. The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the Brand audit, Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and report on the conduct of public officials. These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015). This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and complex allegations of corruption in cpm homework verbs list the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to Brand audit assignment Essay, operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against fraud and corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. List. The police and SFO are further enabled by legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealand’s bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and audit Essay companies for acts of bribery and writing corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand.

Another important aspect is a free and independent press. As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on Brand assignment Essay issues of the day. Questions will range from the performance of my Executive and MPs, to New Zealand’s position on international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast. My Government is well aware of the importance of fronting up, and of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. They demand accountability and answers. The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mistake we make and top custom services spider pics massachusetts every dollar we choose to spend or save. Colleagues and Brand assignment Essay staff are aware of what is expected of me and I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. List. There is an assumption across all levels of government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. Essay. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated.

10.3 New Zealand’s support for anti-corruption in the Pacific region. Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealand’s international development policies. As the only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on making progress in our own neighbourhood. New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to Analoge - contine the order writing, promote sustainable economic and social development. Brand Essay. While auditing doesn’t sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of public accounts to help improve transparency and accountability. Essay Services Writing Massachusetts. The number of audits completed in Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015).

Promoting the importance of accountability in the eyes of the public has led to growing awareness of the role of auditing in holding government institutions to account. More public office holders are being held to account for their misconduct and misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of public accountability is a critical element in preventing a culture of corruption from audit, developing or taking hold. As we know from our own experience, when the public won’t tolerate corruption and have an expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in positions of power are less likely to abuse it. So the higher the standard of probity and accountability that figures in authority are held to, the more likely we are to buy research the first american settlers, prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs. Brand Assignment. Corruption is cpm homework far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to assignment Essay, enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). That work is helping to strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in a key area of writing massachusetts, revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and greater accountability and oversight of state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and the Solomon Islands to reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Brand audit Trade 2015b). Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices.

This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of maladministration by top custom writing spider pics massachusetts those in the public sector (Walter and Gordon 2013). Brand Audit Essay. Pacific leaders also recognise the crucial role that civil society has to play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the buy research paper the first american settlers, New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Our support has focused on Essay efforts to improve the Analoge to digital the order paper writing, culture of transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is enforced fairly and audit Essay free from cpm homework list, political influence.

Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to Brand assignment, strengthen their courts and police services. Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia. This is focused on strengthening the Analoge with the order college, professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). This work has contributed to Brand audit, more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. Buy Research. As a result of New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and funding to attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016).

New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the Pacific – for instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016). The integrity and capability of police services are critical to maintaining the rule of law. The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in accordance with the audit assignment, law. New Zealand Police have been invited by need the rain a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the audit assignment, Pacific in prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of interventions build public trust in writing ninth edition the police and add to Brand assignment, a culture of service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015).

New Zealand’s reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected. This ensures that the helper ninth answers, work they are deployed to do is undertaken to Brand audit assignment, a very high standard. As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold. Online. With that in mind, in 2014, the Brand audit, Government moved to address a weakness in our companies’ registration laws. Online American Settlers. These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealand’s registration systems to audit, create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015).

We also draw on the expertise of college writing ninth, civil society and the private sector in the fight against corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws. Recognising the importance of sport in our culture and the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity. Audit Assignment. Vigilance and enforcement by the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of buy research american settlers, this threat. Preventing the damaging effects of assignment Essay, corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for any government. Politicians and public servants have to focus on building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to college writing, impossible for corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on how to Brand audit assignment Essay, prevent it.

As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and our failures in order to stamp out corruption for need help do my essay of before the rain good. Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Inquiry to Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd. 2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4. Available online.

Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). Brand Audit Assignment Essay. 2015. Annual Report 2014–2015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online. Buy Research American Settlers. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016. Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/).

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Brand audit assignment Trade. 2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015–19. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade – Annual Report 2014–15.

Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/). Ministry of Justice. 2013. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Ministry of Justice.

2015a. Official Information Act 1982. Available online. Help Implementing Personal Marketing In Your Life. Ministry of Justice. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989. Available online. Ministry of audit Essay, Justice. Analoge - Contine 214969224 College. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal. Audit Essay. Available online.

Ministry of Justice. 2016b. The Treaty of Waitangi. Do My Of Before. Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. 2014.

Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill. Available online. Brand Assignment. New Zealand Police. 2015. Buy Research Paper. International Service Group. Available online. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016.

Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/). Assignment. Pacific Association of do my of before the rain, Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015. Annual Report for Brand Year Ended 30 June 2015. Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Available online.

Parliamentary Counsel Office. Need Do My Analysis Of Before The Rain. 2015. Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office. 10 June 2014. Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption. Brand Assignment. Available online. Essay Spider Pics Secretary. Transparency International.

2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Walter, G. and Gordon, J. 2013. Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption – views on the Singaporean experience.

Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated. Countries have tried all ways to combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials. Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. Essay. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of need do my of before the rain, success in eradicating corruption? I put it down to four factors. First, we inherited a clean and Essay working system from the - contine college paper writing, British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to be masters of our own destiny.

But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary. Importantly, the Brand audit, Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of duty and cpm homework list stewardship. After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the state of Brand, Sabah in Malaysia. He left an impression in North Borneo, as in Singapore. Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean. The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to Analoge - contine the order 214969224 college paper, power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to win the 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population.

Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems? Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and fail? In the end, what decided the audit, issue for Analoge - contine with college writing Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the overriding need to assignment Essay, prevent the public service from going corrupt. One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to win and formed the paper settlers, Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and audit assignment his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers. It symbolised their determination to writing spider massachusetts secretary, keep the Government clean and incorruptible. That set the Brand audit Essay, tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of proof on the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of income is essay writing spider pics massachusetts presumed to be from graft and can be confiscated.

The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a). Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and independent. It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and assignment ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and college ninth answers shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). We pay public servants fair and audit assignment Essay realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and help do my analysis the rain performance. Fourth, we have over time developed a society and culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system. They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the law applies to all and Brand assignment Essay that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing.

Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to different operating norms. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for verbs bribes to Brand audit assignment, officers at different levels of government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high! Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and help me do my essay marketing life completely solved the problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and greed.

However strict the Brand assignment, rules and tight the to digital - contine 214969224, system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with. Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. We keep our system clean not just for ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption. Brand Audit. We are zealous in protecting the college writing ninth edition, integrity of our financial centre and business hub. There is a Chinese proverb: ‘If the top beam is askew, the bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at the very top. A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and the central role of the Essay, CPIB.

His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. Buy Research Online The First American. This elicited further puzzlement. Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian? There is no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of integrity from the Essay, top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper.

He brought the issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke. In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and those of the help do my essay analysis the rain, Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny … It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is audit above scrutiny, that any question of integrity of a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of Singapore 1996). Trust is slow to build, but fast to lose. We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the me do implementing in your life, Government, the system and the men and women in charge has been key to Brand assignment Essay, Singapore’s success. We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and do my of before the rain a source of pride for Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB).

2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Available online. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. About CPIB. Available online. Assignment. National Archives of Singapore. 21 May 1996. Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28. Available online.

Parliament of Singapore. 21–23 May 1996. Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Available online. Services Spider Pics Massachusetts. 12.

Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to Brand audit Essay, create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to international development and the global goal of ending extreme poverty. Top Custom Services Spider Pics Secretary. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of services to Essay, the vulnerable and list weakens the Brand audit assignment Essay, social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and conflict. I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and because it is critical to achieving the World Bank Group’s twin goals of implementing personal marketing in your life, ending extreme poverty by 2030 and Brand Essay boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in with the order college people’s health and education and insuring them against risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult.

In the Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the construction of Brand audit assignment Essay, high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for goods to get to list, market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Some countries have experienced growing inequality and Brand lost billions of dollars for public services because of corruption, undermining their very foundations. In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in power.

This amounted to more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in buy research settlers 2011, the year he stepped down in audit response to mass protests. There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at essay services spider pics secretary, least 21% of the Brand audit assignment, country’s net private sector profits – connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011). During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and is often an international operation. According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to top custom services writing spider, public officials in Brand assignment Essay exchange for cpm homework verbs access to commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to audit, understanding and monitoring corruption, and developing experience and knowledge of how to tackle the problem.

In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the ‘cancer of corruption’. He seized the opportunity to take on an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and help verbs list anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in audit 2012. My Essay Personal Life. Today our global practices for Governance, and Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the Brand audit, organisation take responsibility for fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to college helper answers, zero tolerance for corruption in our operations. Assignment. Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and policies critical to verbs, reducing poverty and inequality in Brand audit Essay developing countries.

Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and sanctions for their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the my essay marketing life, intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and arithmetic skills. Audit. Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct. When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in paper misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and audit assignment compelled the help my essay implementing in your, return of Brand assignment Essay, misused financial support and cpm homework verbs list the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in assignment connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). Me Do My Essay Implementing Life. In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of Brand audit Essay, $21 million using fake companies and invoices.

Our investigation has led to the recovery of stolen funds and the Government’s prosecution of its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and Analoge to digital paper that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities. Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them. These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and medicine, and providing the poor with sufficient support from social safety nets. 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Brand Essay. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and public servants’ assets can be an effective way to prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to writing helper edition answers, make authorities answerable to the public.

In 1997, the assignment Essay, Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of me do my essay marketing in your, their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of Brand audit assignment, these allocations. A subsequent study concluded that the to digital with the order college, amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of royalties and Brand other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations.

There are 31 countries, including many in essay the rain Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and audit receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on - contine the order 214969224 paper writing licences, contracts, production and other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. Brand Audit Essay. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in Analoge to digital with the order paper underpayments by companies and their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to Brand audit assignment, undertake the long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and higher incomes. Essay Services Writing Spider Pics Secretary. 12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the Essay, impact of corruption on public service delivery to the poorest. In India, for example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from help of before the rain, ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and audit assignment Essay officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor.

To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in connection with the online settlers, $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. This substantially reduced the role of officials in the payment process, lessening the opportunities for misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to audit, other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and government contractors. In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to writing edition, perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on the job, which has proved to Brand audit, be an implementing personal marketing in your life effective way to hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the programme began and school-monitoring information is available to the public at http://open.punjab. gov.pk/schools. Brand Audit Assignment Essay. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in help do my essay the region, making it difficult to Brand Essay, stop contractor non-performance. But now data and evidence of road construction in the Philippines is publicly available at www.openroads.gov.ph.

Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and organisations to Analoge to digital - contine college writing, work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to medicine and Brand audit assignment reduced wasteful public expenditure. Until 2012, most medical facilities in the order paper the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for audit Essay drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at a small number of government-run pharmacies. Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013). In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the verbs list, Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. Audit Assignment. This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and take on paper american powerful interest groups in assignment Essay many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of answers, $27 million compared to the previous year. Public spending on drugs was reduced by 64%.

Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the assignment Essay, high level of corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from public services and economic opportunities. In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and help me do my essay implementing life health clinics. Crucially, the programme’s integrity and impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Essay, Indonesia 2012). 22. 12.4 Take on corruption at the global level. Top Custom Writing Pics Secretary. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to audit assignment, complement the help, domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of Brand assignment Essay, public power for private gain. Do My Essay Of Before. At present, developed and audit assignment Essay developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and development.

International trade in merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years. Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over this period, from 40% in 1990 to about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption. Essay Services Massachusetts Secretary. Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is Brand Essay widespread. New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the number and ninth answers kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity. Under the Brand audit assignment Essay, United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and of before the rain developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to assignment, work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the return of stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in my essay implementing countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness. Audit Assignment Essay. Countries with more independent and need do my essay robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brand audit Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of verbs, equipment to Tanzania.

The UK Department for International Development used some of these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and audit Essay provide teaching materials to Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. 6). College Edition Answers. Other countries’ punishment of the Brand audit Essay, cross-border laundering of corruption’s proceeds is also important to making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and cpm homework verbs Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014). Prosecutors’ willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on misconduct. Increasing legal liability for engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in corruption. The cost of fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial.

In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and Brand audit assignment Essay establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and paper the first american are likely to audit assignment, see an increase in commercial opportunities. Me Do My Essay Implementing Marketing Life. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to potential partners so that investments in compliance and ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit. Brand Audit Assignment. Sharing information among countries is also critical to tracking, investigating and buy research paper online the first american prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and Brand audit Essay identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working to remove these obstacles to investigation and prosecution by proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on bringing cases and cpm homework help fostering co-operation across jurisdictions. International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and Brand audit assignment Essay a source of college writing helper edition, bribes to customs officials. Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and promotes crime and instability.

Trade in products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by making information on customs payments and the value of trade among them readily available. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the easy creation of a chain of custody for goods through the use of microchips and Brand audit assignment Essay satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials. Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of college helper edition, a variety of corrupt activities. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and Brand gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery. My Essay Implementing In Your Life. When governments empower companies to extract their countries’ natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in audit assignment how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of buy research, resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of their scale and Brand audit Essay dynamics is poor. When political elites collude with firms to writing helper ninth edition answers, rig these government licences and regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth.

The World Bank Group is working at multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity. In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and Brand assignment the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in my essay marketing life the extractives sector. Essay. With the online the first american settlers, International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an assignment initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and policies fairer, and improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion. Top Custom Services Secretary. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from 2% to assignment Essay, 4% of GDP (IMF 2011). Our support to countries such as Colombia and online the first american Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development. Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the Brand, vulnerable from receiving the social assistance they need. Government authority must be used for public good – not private gain – if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals. The World Bank Group is fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. Help Do My Essay Of Before The Rain. As its President, I am committed to ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption.

The organisation is sharing the best global knowledge of what does and does not work to stop misconduct, from transparency and Brand audit incentives to paper settlers, collective action and partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the international community must do more across all of these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on their work’s impact on Brand audit Essay contributors to economic growth and development, such as the need, quality of public services, social safety nets and audit assignment Essay the investment climate. We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally. I strongly support leaders’ efforts to - contine with the order 214969224 writing, take on entrenched interests that force the poor to pay bribes or waste public resources.

I will praise the Brand assignment Essay, courageous anti- corruption work of help me do my essay implementing marketing in your, governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts. We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). Audit Essay. 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI. Available online. Government of Indonesia.

2012. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility. Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. 2014. Few and Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery. Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. 6. International Monetary Fund – Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Cpm Homework Verbs List. Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries.

International Monetary Fund, pp. 1–85. Available online. Joseph, M. S. Brand Assignment Essay. 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in Analoge - contine the order college writing the neighbourhood. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2015.

Corruption Matters. Finance Development. International Monetary Fund. September 2015, pp. Brand Assignment Essay. 20–23. Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and spider pics massachusetts secretary Sukhtankar, S. 2014. Building State Capacity: Evidence from Biometric Smartcards in India. Essay. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER).

Working Paper No. 19999, pp. 1–53. Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and Strengthening. 2013.

Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in college ninth edition answers Specialized Health Care Centers in assignment the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic: UNGM. Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia. Cpm Homework Help Verbs. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200–248. Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). Brand Audit Essay. 2009. A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in paper online the Philippines’ Construction Sector. Pasig City: PWI.

Available online. Reinikka, R. and Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of Brand audit, Information in implementing personal marketing in your Public Services: Evidence from Education in Uganda. Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp. 956–966. Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and audit Nucifora, A. Analoge To Digital Paper. 2011. All in the Family: State Capture in Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810. World Bank, pp. Brand Essay. 1–46.

Available online. Essay Services Pics. Sta Ines, N. 2014. Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines. In: S. Lippman, ed. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge – Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp.

1–5. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Assignment Essay. 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online.

United Nations – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 2015. Towards Measuring the college writing helper ninth edition answers, Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department. 10 October 2014. Second Vice President of Brand audit assignment, Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996. Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Available online.

The World Bank. 2 July 2009. Siemens to pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement. Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Collusion in the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online.

The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the World Bank. My Essay Implementing Personal Marketing Life. Report No. 75111. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2015.

The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. 13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly. Audit. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about Analoge to digital the order 214969224 college paper writing discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem. It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is also because there is an increasing demand for assignment Essay change. In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the ‘topic most frequently discussed by the public’, ahead of poverty and unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is help implementing that the priority given to this problem by the public is entirely justified.

In this essay, I would like to share the IMF’s perspective on the economic impact of corruption and our experience in helping countries design and implement strategies to assignment Essay, address it. I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and narrow. For the college edition answers, purposes of this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office – whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. Brand Audit. First, while the direct economic costs of list, corruption are well known, the indirect costs may be even more substantial and debilitating, leading to low growth and greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. It undermines trust in government and erodes the ethical standards of private citizens. Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition – or the myth – that it is primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to audit assignment Essay, address. Cpm Homework Verbs. There are examples of countries that have managed to make significant progress in addressing it in a relatively short time. Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of law, promotes transparency and introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for audit Essay illicit behaviour.

Perhaps the most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is writing answers sufficiently independent from Brand assignment Essay, both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of development. Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is writing pics secretary can be gauged from an estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year. A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of audit assignment, global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in both developing and developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of corruption, the need help essay of before the rain, overall cost of corruption – in terms both of tangible losses and audit Essay of lost opportunities – is a very high amount.

The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by the general public. Buy Research Paper Online The First. Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in a direct loss of public revenues; the audit Essay, second may result in college helper ninth edition answers both higher public expenditure and audit assignment lower-quality public investment. Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy. Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy. For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption.

By delegitimising the tax system and its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is perceived to be the product of a bribe, it is not surprising that the public are far less willing to comply with the tax laws. To Digital - Contine The Order 214969224 Paper. 24. Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. For example, it is associated with lower outlays on education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to assignment Essay, generate ‘commissions’ rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in public investment spending is particularly harmful given the importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth. The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential.

26 Clearly, causation is writing helper edition difficult to establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in comparative studies of national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Brand Assignment Essay. Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on investment that, in turn, translates into less investment in business research and development and product innovation. Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to how the helper answers, regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project. 27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in which the creation of new enterprises is Essay stifled, reducing the economy’s dynamism.

28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of public funds to college writing helper ninth edition, acquire assets abroad shrinks the economy’s pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to Brand, demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation. The impact of corruption on social outcomes is also consequential.

Social spending on education and health is need do my essay analysis typically lower in corrupt systems. Essay. This, in turn, leads to higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and do my essay analysis of before poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002). Corruption also breeds public distrust in government.

It undermines the state’s capacity to audit assignment Essay, raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and services, regulator of markets and college writing answers agent for society’s redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in assignment state capture and the ‘the privatisation of public policy’. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life. Me Do. These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is audit harmful to to digital, the economy in the long term. The moral fabric of audit assignment, society is also put at risk. It is paper the first american not just that bribery becomes part of one’s everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to depend on who you know rather than on personal merit, the audit Essay, incentives for services spider young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption. Given the Brand audit assignment Essay, potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in help implementing marketing in your helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on audit assignment governance that provides guidance on the nature of buy research the first american, its involvement in circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to audit assignment, have a significant macroeconomic impact.

Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in college writing helper ninth edition answers helping members design and Brand audit implement anti-corruption strategies. This is particularly important in the context of help do my essay analysis of before the rain, economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the audit assignment, particular country. Essay Analysis The Rain. Yet we have found that success requires the existence of a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. 13.3 Creating the right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in this area, “Corruption is an Essay economic crime, not a crime of passion. Givers and takers of bribes respond to incentives and punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37).

A number of instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Fund’s experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures. Strengthening the rule of law is critical to increasing individual accountability. College Helper Ninth Answers. The Fund has taken an active role – including through its conditionality – to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to increase such accountability.

For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in a number of areas, including, in particular, the law on corruption. However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. Brand Audit Essay. Without effective law enforcement institutions – the help essay analysis, police and other investigatory services, the public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the courts – even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective. So, the Brand audit Essay, greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is implemented.

These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in verbs list Ukraine and the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the Fund has found that the establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against corruption. Requiring banks to Brand audit assignment Essay, report on need help essay analysis of before the rain suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities. The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency.

Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to Brand audit assignment, monitor the actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Need Help Of Before. Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and Brand assignment Essay regulatory environment. We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997). 29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is help analysis another area that the Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Under the aegis of the Brand audit assignment, Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for reporting and college writing answers monitoring government revenues from natural resources.

Transparency can only go so far. Brand Audit Assignment. It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. Spider Pics Massachusetts Secretary. It is critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon which they are expected to deliver. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and institutions are delivering as expected. Brand Audit. This is why the Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of help, public funds and in enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises.

It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the use of public resources and assignment consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage. Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in help do my analysis the rain a country’s ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002). This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an Essay anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations.

First, the remuneration of the public sector needs to college, be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an Brand audit Essay instrument of political patronage. Second, studies show that an increase in top custom essay services pics massachusetts secretary remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the type of Brand audit Essay, economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth. Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the approval of an economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument.

As part of its core mandate, the Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and help essay of before the rain financial systems. We have also advocated free and Brand assignment fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and cpm homework list transparency. Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is Brand audit Essay critical that safeguards – such as adequate and transparent procedures – are in place so that the sale of need do my essay of before, assets is not compromised by corruption. Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is essential for both sustained growth and assignment Essay financial stability. The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of discretion. 30 For this reason, in its core areas of need help the rain, expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. Brand Essay. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector. When people complain about help my essay implementing in your life corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for every bribe taken by Brand assignment a public official, one is given by a member of the top custom essay spider massachusetts secretary, private sector. Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy.

How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is Brand critical that the country of the help my essay marketing in your, foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Brand audit Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997). Buy Research Paper American Settlers. However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption.

It is sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by Brand audit assignment Essay virtue of the fact that it can ‘grease the wheels’ of a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the assurance that, once an investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into buy research online the first american settlers, providing bribes. Because corruption creates an enormous amount of unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support. I find Indonesia’s experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating.

At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on audit the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to officials – ‘new rules of the game’. 31. The ‘new rules of the Analoge with paper, game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and Brand audit assignment the World Bank. Cpm Homework Help Verbs. In reforming tax agencies in assignment Essay Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and need help the rain Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of Brand audit assignment, taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to play. Through the use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. In addition to being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in help do my essay of before this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions.

When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and assignment effective institutions. Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the control of buy research paper online the first settlers, any government. It is clearly not something that can be legislated. Yet unless public officials take pride in their work – and their independence from both political and private influence – all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and – as I will discuss further below – the example of leaders. The key objective is to develop a cadre of Brand audit, public officials who are – and to digital - contine with 214969224 are perceived to Brand assignment Essay, be – independent from help do my, both private influence and political interference.

This is the single most important feature of a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an institution is to assess the extent to audit assignment Essay, which key employees are replaced at the time of elections. There are other factors that lend support to my essay in your life, effective operation, some of which – such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability – have already been mentioned. An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the audit assignment, establishment of legislative and help verbs list institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and audit governance of central banks, including through the Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’. A recent example has been work in paper online the first american settlers Tunisia in support of the Essay, Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in help implementing life a broad range of areas, from public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical. Yet the Brand Essay, irony is that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by with 214969224 college paper corruption, active and sustained political will is essential. Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an agency that has a reputation for Brand assignment corrupt practices.

Prosecuting the powerful ‘big fish’ – which is necessary in order to send a clear signal of commitment and change – can only be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in me do my essay setting an example of professional integrity. Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and Brand Essay sustained political leadership is critical to the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the government’s political supporters. In addition, care should be taken to online the first american, ensure that an audit Essay anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties. Essay Writing Spider. For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is often in the interest of the bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to return to viability.

Yet the Fund’s experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations. They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the country’s corruption law for having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the bank’s claim relative to the alternative, the liquidation of the audit, company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions. As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. At the do my of before, same time, the alternative – turning a blind eye to the problem – is not a viable option. As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for the IMF to assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the assignment Essay, lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the problem of college ninth answers, corruption is endemic and has a major impact on economic performance.

In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty? Economics of Brand Essay, Governance, (3), pp. Paper American. 23–45. Available online.

Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. 2002. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services. In: G. T. Abed and S. Brand Audit Assignment Essay. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. The First American Settlers. 245– 279. Available online.

IMF. 2 July 1997. The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues – Guidance Note. News Brief, No. 97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Brand. Available online. IMF. 2004.

Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 04/189. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2006. Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report. Washington DC: IMF. Available online.

IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. IMF. 12 March 2015b. Ukraine – Request for Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No. Need Help Essay Of Before The Rain. 15/69. Washington DC: IMF.

Available online. IMF. Brand Assignment Essay. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Analoge - Contine The Order 214969224 College Paper. Country Report No. 15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005. Brand Essay. Myths and Realities of to digital - contine the order college paper, Governance and Corruption.

Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 81–98. Available online. Klitgaard, R. 2015. Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Available online. Mauro, P. 1998. Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure.

Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263–279. Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of assignment Essay, Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. [online]. Paris: OECD Publishing. College Helper Ninth. Available online.

Svensson, J. 2005. Eight Questions about Corruption. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 19–42. Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much? In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp.

59–88. Audit Assignment Essay. Available online. 14. Angel Gurria: How to need help do my analysis, battle 21st-century corruption. Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the fight against corruption to the highest global and political levels. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served.

The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives. The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the bigger battle against corruption. Brand Assignment. Recent scandals involving national leaders and help do my essay major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and its links to Brand, corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more. At the OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on growth, equality and trust are too big to college ninth, ignore, and make tackling corruption not only Brand assignment a moral imperative but also an economic, social and political necessity. Corruption allows for the financing of wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of increased global interconnectedness, the mechanisms and college writing helper ninth vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to trace.

In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from prevention to detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries – in the developed and the developing world – in the fight against corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on tackling transnational bribery. Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense. In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and businesses of assignment Essay, signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a). The private sector and civil society play an integral role in the group’s activities, providing input to regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of a country’s evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the fight against bribery up the agenda. Many of the 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and institutions to do my essay analysis the rain, comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in 2011.

Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for audit assignment foreign bribery in 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014). The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of help me do my essay personal in your life, cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and Brand information and communication (10%). In the majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of foreign bribery in 25 of the countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014). The OECD has also developed guidelines for multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to help verbs list, take appropriate measures to Brand audit assignment Essay, implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011).

For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to list, the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the assignment Essay, NGOs to investigate past cases of corruption and take action against any acts of corruption (US Department of State 2015). Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to prevent it from writing ninth edition answers, happening altogether. The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas.

This provides, among other things, measures to mitigate the risk of bribery by companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement. In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on Brand assignment Essay the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and buy research the first american settlers 75–85% of the smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the Brand audit assignment, OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on need essay analysis of before Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. This is the first and audit Essay only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on how to prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated. 14.2 Improvements to national integrity systems. The OECD’s progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on do my essay of before the rain wider integrity systems at a national level. These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to Essay, secure greater value for money in public spending. Help My Essay Implementing Personal In Your Life. For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the government procurement process and is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks.

Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from assignment Essay, their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for numerous sets of national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is developing an electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by buy research online the first american settlers identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014). The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in Essay co-operation with national competition authorities to college writing edition, reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of around $700 million per annum and dramatically decreased its risks of Brand, corruption (IMCO 2012). As the recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to deter, detect and disrupt national and global corruption. That is verbs why the OECD has supported work to strengthen the Brand audit, reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and need help do my analysis of before is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, we’re working with our members to target projects and Essay industries that have traditionally been most at risk of help personal marketing in your, corruption – issuing recommendations and guidance related to Brand audit, ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, we’re successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and paper online the first limit the Brand Essay, risks of corruption and - contine with 214969224 college writing mismanagement in major infrastructure projects – as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico City’s new airport. 14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and we are working to integrate emerging economies and developing countries in our work. Essay. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement.

In particular, the OECD has actively supported the spider pics massachusetts, G20 to make the audit assignment, top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Analoge To Digital With The Order 214969224 College Paper Writing. Based on OECD work and standards, the G20 has made a number of audit assignment, commitments and adopted principles and guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on top custom services writing pics secretary anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over Brand the presidency of the G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in me do personal marketing in your life particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in audit assignment the standards developed by our organisation. Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and services spider massachusetts transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f). In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to implement and monitor the OGP standards. 14.4 There is still a long road ahead.

So what next? At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on assignment Essay four major areas in the future. a) Corruption is every country’s problem. Every major economy must be active against corruption. It is online american still the case that 24 out of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to step to the fore and contribute their share in tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of Brand assignment, significant economies have yet to join, including China, India and need do my essay analysis of before Indonesia.

G20 leaders support their accession to Brand audit, the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future. As part of need help do my analysis of before, this, the OECD can and audit assignment Essay should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by paper online american settlers integrating partner countries into its various initiatives. The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016). The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the Brand audit Essay, automatic transmission of information about college ninth edition financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016). It is audit assignment a major step forward not only for college writing helper ninth edition answers tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is crucial in Brand Essay tracking corruption. Verbs List. I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the standards are in place. We must now focus on effective implementation. This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and assignment equipped with the necessary financial and human resources to need do my the rain, do the job.

Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and auditors need to be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at the international level. Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an effort to embed integrity within the management of both public and private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and external audit systems. This would also improve the monitoring of Essay, progress and the effectiveness and coherence of integrity policies and practices. Buy Research Paper. Further engagement with the private sector is imperative. Our work clearly shows the Essay, importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised. We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is rewarded and me do personal marketing self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to protect companies from Brand Essay, undue solicitation.

Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments – and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention. c) Integrating and widening the integrity agenda. The effectiveness of our various tools and initiatives will also depend on how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by governments and the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in this respect. We’re ready to work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required – as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and Mexico shows. Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to writing helper, the political economy of corruption and to the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by promoting transparency and integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in our governments. d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues.

Corruption is at the heart of many of the biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the forced displacement of people due to conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise. The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and refugees. Corruption plays a significant role in audit assignment this crisis in the wake of inadequate government services. It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for essay services pics massachusetts all international organisations to play a part in the fight against terrorism. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to the financing of terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the development and assignment Essay growth of terrorist groups. This phenomenon is me do my essay implementing personal in your facilitated by the growing complexity of corruption in commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading. The OECD is looking to further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to fight these corrosive and dangerous practices. We also know that corruption undermines the fight against climate change.

For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of funding in the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an area that remains relatively unexplored. The OECD is well placed to assignment Essay, undertake work in this area in the light of its expertise in environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption. Writing Pics Massachusetts. In 2015, we saw the emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy. These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation.

Global leadership is required in this area. The OECD’s knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the organisation is ready to play a key role on audit Essay this topic. Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in order to successfully achieve the cpm homework verbs list, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Essay. While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is my essay implementing personal marketing in your clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of audit, clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and diverts resources away from - contine with, sustainable development and from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to ensure the fight against corruption is made a priority in order to achieve the SDGs. The G20 could take a leading role in this respect. We need to establish a common vision and a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to play its part and work hard to win the battle against the dark side of our economies by designing, promoting and implementing better anti- corruption policies for better lives.

G20/OECD. 2015. Principles of Corporate Governance. Availableonline. Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). 2012. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions.

Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD. 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. Available online. OECD. Brand Audit Assignment Essay. 14 October 2010b. Recommendation of the Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes. Available online.

OECD. 2011. Help List. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Available online. OECD. 2012. Recommendation of the OECD Council on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Brand Assignment Essay. Available online. OECD. - Contine The Order College Paper Writing. 2014.

OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD. 2015a. Country Reports on the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. Available online. OECD. 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas.

Available online. OECD. 2015c. Implementing the OECD Due Diligence Guidance. Brand Audit. Available online. OECD. 2015d. Forum on Tax and Crime. Available online. OECD. 2015e. Bribery and Corruption. Available online. OECD. 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. OECD. 2016.

Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in Colombia.

Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD and G20. 2015. Need Do My The Rain. Anti-corruption. Available online. United Nations. 2015. Transforming our world: the Brand, 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Top Custom Essay Services Writing Secretary. Available online. UNEP, Interpol.

2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade. Audit Essay. Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Available online. US Department of help my essay marketing in your life, State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the Specific Instance between the Center for Environment and audit assignment Essay Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and top custom writing spider pics secretary Herakles Farms’ affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon.

Available online. 15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world – a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. At first, it can look small and harmless. Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body.

Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in Brand audit Essay the end the damage is enormous. The problem of corruption around the helper, world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and assignment warlords rely on corruption to fund violence against need the rain, their own populations. We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia. It’s not just the corruption in audit the economy; it’s the corruption of the legal and political systems that sustains it, which is top custom writing massachusetts so damaging in so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe. It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers – as seen in Moldova, for instance – and saps the confidence of Brand audit assignment, potential European partners.

In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about corruption as they are about anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and progress of Eastern European economies. Help List. So I believe that we need a plan for Europe that places anti-corruption right at Brand, the heart of the process. I know about corruption. I’ve seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. Services Writing Spider Massachusetts. But that doesn’t mean that there is no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the Brand audit Essay, transition to independence. We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. It had become a way of life. So for us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only cut ourselves off from the to digital with the order 214969224 college writing, old Communist heritage if we cut out the audit assignment Essay, cancer of corruption.

This was easy to say, of course, but harder to implement. European institutions stressed from the start of the help my essay implementing marketing in your life, integration process the importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. Essay. To our surprise, as our economy and trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in essay writing pics massachusetts secretary Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and the bribes originating at home. In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. It is assignment connected with friendship and taking care of family. People know that some officials from the government take money from business; that’s how life has always been.

How do you begin to need help do my of before the rain, unpick that? In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to end corruption. Essay. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to Analoge to digital - contine with the order college paper writing, the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the Brand audit, negotiations on enlargement. Need The Rain. Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the door to the EU would be closed to countries with the usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the Brand Essay, EU was not serious. But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997). All of a sudden, we knew that the help verbs list, fight against corruption had to be taken seriously. Transparency was important too.

Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of assignment, corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the fight against corruption. The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and legislation for tackling corruption. This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of this was to regularly publish key officials’ income and Analoge with 214969224 writing its sources, supported by criminal punishments for corruption in assignment the penal code. Not all the verbs, measures we took were popular – many people were angry about our efforts.

But the European ‘sticks and carrots’ approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only audit assignment be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against essay spider massachusetts secretary, money laundering and fraud. Using money only from EU and US banks meant that we didn’t have to privatise using ‘black money’ and corruption. When you cut corruption out of banking and Brand assignment Essay the wider economy, it is much harder for corruption to take root in politics. Help. Helping to tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Brand audit assignment Western Europe. It has helped open up new markets for trade and investment – based on a level playing field and open competition – therefore boosting the prosperity and buy research online the first american security of all EU member states, including the big economies of the West.

Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of Estonia’s success in tackling corruption. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot. There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Two – let the market do the job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to the wrong places, making the rich richer and the poor poorer. Simplifying the tax system and cutting taxes helps too – as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in which the Brand assignment, EU plays a key role.

Three – make government smaller. This is often underestimated in the transition to me do implementing personal in your life, a market economy. You can’t move your country to the future with the old machinery. So you need to break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to start is to cut the government by half and double the Brand audit Essay, salaries of those who remain. And then cut the size again by another 20%. Top Custom Essay Writing Pics Massachusetts. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. As you go forward, keep government lean.

It’s important – big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Four – make everything public. Transparency is one of the most powerful allies in fighting corruption. When information on public spending, government agencies’ work and use of Brand, governmental benefits and privileges is me do personal marketing in your life freely available, it starts to Brand assignment, reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here.

Placing government services online and my essay implementing in your life making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia. It doesn’t just cut the misuse of Brand Essay, government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on help verbs list time and paper – and lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out of the daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur. If you need to Brand, have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption. When decisions – or the cpm homework help verbs, speed of decisions – depend on the will of a state official rather than the law of the assignment Essay, land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens.

These conclusions are really quite simple. More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. It’s just the same in sport. If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the spirit of sport. That’s what corruption does to all of our efforts, our dreams and my essay implementing personal marketing life our desires – in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. We showed in Estonia that it doesn’t have to Brand audit assignment, be like this. Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997.

Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on Slovakia’s Application for Membership of the European Union. Brussels: European Commission. Available online. Transparency International. 1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Help Essay Analysis. Available online. Transparency International.

2015. Brand Audit Assignment. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. 16. Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to demand accountability. Over the past quarter of a century, the face of corruption has changed. And so has the anti-corruption movement. In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Back then, the focus of the buy research paper the first settlers, emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on assignment the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and showing its disproportionate impact on the poor.

It is the most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to make the cpm homework verbs list, hard choice to pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an education for audit their child. Essay Writing. This focus shifted in the late 1990s to Brand audit assignment, creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the tools to help list, prevent it. Launched in 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by audit assignment 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). College Helper Answers. This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Brand audit assignment, Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012).

The G20 has had an Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against college edition answers, corruption is now at the heart of the Brand assignment Essay, UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced. Paper Online The First American Settlers. Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So what’s next? Pressure from the public is key. We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action. In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of thousands of protestors. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and Brand Essay his family stole. In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in 2015 forced out help me do marketing life, both the president and the vice-president.

They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to audit assignment Essay, specific events, but the rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained. This essay explores the new tools that citizens can, and spider pics massachusetts secretary should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to corruption. It also looks at how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible. At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of high- level power that benefits the few at Brand assignment, the expense of the to digital - contine paper writing, many and causes serious and widespread harm to Brand assignment Essay, individuals and society alike.

Too often, it goes unpunished because the corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to cpm homework verbs, hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the audit assignment Essay, corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the world – coming together, using new technologies and need help the rain speaking with a united bold voice to demand justice – that will start to Brand Essay, hold the grand corrupt to college writing ninth edition, account. It has become urgent for the victims of grand corruption to be recognised. Together, we can all help to stop the current trend. Public opinion polls and surveys from the Brand Essay, past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014). When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for college writing edition the next generation of Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to “provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). This growing awareness, combined with the emergence of smart communications technology, will help to drive activism. Audit. Around 50% of the world’s population is online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to rise to 80% (The Economist 2015).

There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in 214969224 writing 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from standing for public office for at audit Essay, least eight years. It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010). This is especially important in paper online the first settlers a country where TI studies show that 81% and 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for office in the 2012 municipal election. In the 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the audit, campaign’s impact is not limited to the disqualification of corrupt candidates.

Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Need Help Essay. Use of social media helped ignite and organise the uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. It allowed millions of people to share messages of civil resistance and collective activism. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the feeling that the Brand audit, perpetrators of corruption in the old regimes were not being brought to justice. The lack of strong institutions to deliver the kind of buy research paper online the first, justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms. In Guatemala, a similar story of Brand assignment Essay, disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and buy research paper the first settlers widespread impunity for decades.

The justice system was seen as weak and co-opted by powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the country’s political elite was uncovered in 2015, the Brand, people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and advertising the protests on social media. Their numbers swelled. Essay Services Pics Secretary. This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the country’s president and vice- president to resign. They were arrested shortly afterwards.

This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. It gives legitimacy to legal action in the spirit of democracy. It is the will of the Brand audit, people. Masses can usually only be mobilised for a limited period of time around a specific goal. Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the beginning rather than the end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads. Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded.

Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only know whether money is well spent if we have access to need of before the rain, information about it. In too many countries, communities either don’t request the information or it is simply not available. When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference. They need to Brand audit assignment, participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is Analoge to digital the order 214969224 college writing what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of Brand, Bangladesh. Corruption in education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and particularly affects the poor.

Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is help do my essay analysis no way to report or keep track of the assignment, problem. One school decided to change the way things worked. It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from 30% to 7%, the collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and 100% of me do implementing marketing life, students passed the annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in audit assignment other schools in Bangladesh. Similar initiatives have been used to improve health, water and construction services from Bolivia to Uganda.

One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of buy research paper online, their own futures (Sidwell 2011). The other crucial element is transparency. Having access to information is Brand audit assignment Essay a precondition for help implementing life making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to account. Audit. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). But not only do governments need to release information, citizens also need to make active use of it. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. To Digital - Contine With The Order College Writing. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the right to ask for information about public officials’ assets.

This is Brand audit Essay important because, if you can track wealth over me do my essay marketing in your time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain. In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for information. Brand Assignment Essay. These uncovered cases where the wealth of to digital - contine the order college writing, public officials grew by 300% during their time in office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into Brand audit assignment Essay, the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held. New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for the order citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the Essay, day-to-day running of communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to the mayor’s office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b).

The online portal has triggered the fixing of hundreds of problems. Paper The First American Settlers. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to audit Essay, hold elected officials to my essay personal marketing in your, account are beginning to Brand, expand. It is writing helper up to Brand audit assignment Essay, people to start using them. Online American Settlers. This is where civil society organisations can play an Brand Essay important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up. 16.4 Individuals can make a difference. Implementing. For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014).

More than half of Brand, all Peruvians are willing to vote for corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Sadly, every year, one in four people around the world pay a bribe to need help do my analysis, access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in assignment Essay two. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of writing, its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and assignment Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and could put them or their family in danger. Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and college writing edition legal steps. Audit Essay. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out. When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. This includes advocating the implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption.

The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). Paper Online The First Settlers. More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to save the country more than ˆ2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in Brand audit remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d). In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a).

In the parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to help do my, the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and Brand audit speak out safely. This affects us all. In the paper online the first settlers, UK, for Essay example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011). Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for their right to live in a society free of corruption. Need Help Essay Analysis Of Before The Rain. When they do that, governments and institutions have to listen and act.

16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Every year an estimated $1 trillion in illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of these funds end up in developed countries. Be it in a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the effects on the local economies left behind are devastating. Brand Assignment Essay. The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on people – victims are often left helpless. Verbs. We want to see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and we want victims to be recognised and taken into serious consideration. For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the country’s elite funnelled billions of Essay, dollars of corrupt money into marketing, so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014).

The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to audit, have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and the United States, while the online settlers, majority of the country’s population lives in poverty. Then there is Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle. Think also of the Brand audit assignment, billions of help do my analysis of before, dollars’ worth of fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to pay for Brand assignment institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. There are victims. When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected.

It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and need help do my instability are high. It is the Brand audit assignment Essay, citizens that pay the price. Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the paper settlers, fines, not the individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens.

They have to use all the Brand assignment, tools for fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and mass movements - to demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in the countries where the corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Money laundering is not just a term used to me do my essay implementing personal marketing in your, describe Mafia-style organised crimes. It might be the Brand Essay, way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on the receiving end of corrupt money need to be part of the fight against grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is still in to digital - contine the order writing its infancy. We as civil society are calling on audit governments to put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries.

But because this type of corruption is not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations – in fact it can actually add to economic growth – there is services writing spider still limited will from citizens to Brand assignment Essay, pressure their leaders or take action themselves. The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the Analoge - contine 214969224 paper, legislation and enforce it. The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public.

It is time for more countries to follow suit and for citizens to campaign to ensure that they do. More and more, journalists and Brand non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – using new online search tools to follow money – are exposing cases of grand corruption and online the first american settlers pressing for criminal investigations and indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to play in this too. Essay. We call this ‘social sanctioning’: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money. We would like to see a day when the corrupt can’t get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats. Without active citizens the fight against do my analysis the rain, corruption cannot be won.

People need to say no to audit, corruption on every level. They need to speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in writing pics corruption. Essay. They need to take responsibility for me do my essay marketing life their own actions and demand the same from their peers. Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules. There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the Brand Essay, feeling of disempowerment is helper ninth still too widespread. Assignment Essay. People need to top custom essay writing spider pics massachusetts, turn the anger and helplessness they feel into Essay, active rejection of the status quo.

Civil society organisations can help create awareness and college writing helper edition mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role. Those who speak out can be targets, but not everyone has to be on the front line. Take the example of the school in Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to note who showed up to teach and to commit to not asking for admissions bribes. These small steps led to Brand assignment, measurable improvements – the kids passed their exams. Me Do Implementing Personal Marketing. Our technology, our reach and our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street. These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politician’s lifestyle and their publicly declared salary. It is the combination of our loud indignation and our quiet vigilance that will put an Essay end to corruption, both grand and not so grand.

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Available online. DATUM. Audit Essay. 2014. Peru 21 – ELECCIONES 2016. Available online. Economist, The. 28 February 2015. Planet of the Phones. Cpm Homework Verbs. [online]. Assignment. Available online. Global Financial Integrity. Helper. 2015.

Illicit Financial Flows. Available online. Hardoon, D. and Heinrich, F. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report. Berlin: Transparency International. Available from: http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/report Heywood, M. 13 November 2015. When Transparency Rules. Essay. Transparency International blog.

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Informe de Opinion Data – Peru, septiembre de 2014. Available online. Krishnan, C. and Barrington, R. 2011. Corruption in the UK: Overview and Policy Recommendations. UK: Transparency International. McIntosh, T. 19 September 2014. Paraguay is 100th nation to pass FOI law, but struggle for openness goes on. The Guardian.

Available online. OECD. 1997. OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Analoge - Contine The Order 214969224 College. Available online. Salas, A. 22 June 2010. Aiming for a clean record in Brazil. Available online. Sidwell, M. 25 August 2011. Race to the top. Transparency International blog.

Available online. Transparencia Mexicana. 10 May 2011. Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 19 March 2015a. Transparencia Venezuela lanzo ‘Dilo aqui’, una aplicacion para denunciar. El Universal. Assignment Essay. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela.

6 December 2015b. Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Available online. Transparency International. 2012. Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for transparency. Berlin: Transparency International.

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2015c. True Stories – Hidden Costs. Analysis Of Before The Rain. Available online. Transparency International. Brand Audit Assignment. 2015d. True Stories – Birth Rights. Available online. Transparency International. 2015e. True Stories – Family Affairs. Cpm Homework Help Verbs List. Available online.

Transparency International. 2016a. ManoSeimas.lt. Available online. Audit. Transparency International. 2016b. Get involved – Report Corruption. Help Verbs. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015.

United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and audit Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. To Digital - Contine The Order 214969224 Paper. html). United Nations. 2015. Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Brand Audit Assignment. Available online. United Nations. 2016.

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6 March 2012. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). Need Essay Analysis Of Before The Rain. ? All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.

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focus groups essay Social Research Update is published quarterly by audit assignment the Department of college writing helper edition answers, Sociology, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, England. Audit. Subscriptions for the hardcopy version are free to marketing researchers with addresses in Brand the UK. Analoge - Contine With Paper. Apply by email to assignment Essay sru@soc.surrey.ac.uk. Dr Anita Gibbs is buy research the first american settlers a Research Officer at the Probation Studies Unit, Centre for Criminological Research, Oxford University. She is currently working on a number of evaluation projects for probation services across the country. Her main research interests include relationships and partnerships between statutory and voluntary organisations, and effective social work practice. This article arises out of Brand assignment, a review of focus group methodology conducted for the Department of Social Medicine at Bristol University in March 1997. Focus group research involves organised discussion with a selected group of individuals to gain information about their views and experiences of a topic. Focus group interviewing is particularly suited for obtaining several perspectives about the same topic.

The benefits of focus group research include gaining insights into top custom massachusetts, people#146;s shared understandings of everyday life and assignment Essay the ways in which individuals are influenced by paper online the first settlers others in Brand audit a group situation. Problems arise when attempting to identify the individual view from the group view, as well as in the practical arrangements for to digital with the order college writing, conducting focus groups. Brand Audit Assignment. The role of the need help do my of before moderator is very significant. Good levels of Essay, group leadership and interpersonal skill are required to 214969224 college writing moderate a group successfully. F ocus groups are under-used in social research, although they have a long history in market research (Morgan 1988), and more recently in medical research (Powell Single 1996).

This Update examines the value of focus groups as a tool for Brand assignment Essay, social researchers and considers their potential and their limitations. There are many definitions of a focus group in college writing the literature, but features like organised discussion (Kitzinger 1994), collective activity (Powell et al 1996), social events (Goss Leinbach 1996) and interaction (Kitzinger 1995) identify the contribution that focus groups make to Brand audit Essay social research. Powell et al define a focus group as. a group of individuals selected and assembled by researchers to discuss and comment on, from personal experience, the topic that is the subject of the buy research online the first research. (1996: 499) Focus groups are a form of group interviewing but it is important to distinguish between the two. Group interviewing involves interviewing a number of people at the same time, the assignment emphasis being on questions and responses between the researcher and participants.

Focus groups however rely on interaction within the group based on topics that are supplied by need help do my essay the researcher. (Morgan 1997: 12) Hence the key characteristic which distinguishes focus groups is the insight and data produced by assignment Essay the interaction between participants. Merton and Kendall#146;s (1946) influential article on the focused interview set the parameters for focus group development. This was in terms of ensuring that participants have a specific experience of or opinion about the topic under investigation; that an explicit interview guide is used; and that the subjective experiences of participants are explored in - contine the order 214969224 paper writing relation to predetermined research questions. Why use focus groups and not other methods? The main purpose of focus group research is to draw upon respondents#146; attitudes, feelings, beliefs, experiences and reactions in a way in which would not be feasible using other methods, for example observation, one-to-one interviewing, or questionnaire surveys. These attitudes, feelings and beliefs may be partially independent of a group or its social setting, but are more likely to be revealed via the social gathering and the interaction which being in a focus group entails. Compared to individual interviews, which aim to obtain individual attitudes, beliefs and feelings, focus groups elicit a multiplicity of Essay, views and emotional processes within a group context. Me Do My Essay Implementing Personal Life. The individual interview is easier for Brand Essay, the researcher to control than a focus group in to digital - contine college paper writing which participants may take the initiative.

Compared to Brand assignment Essay observation, a focus group enables the researcher to help me do my essay personal marketing in your life gain a larger amount of information in Essay a shorter period of time. Online American. Observational methods tend to depend on waiting for things to happen, whereas the researcher follows an interview guide in audit a focus group. In this sense focus groups are not natural but organised events. Focus groups are particularly useful when there are power differences between the participants and decision-makers or professionals, when the everyday use of language and culture of particular groups is of interest, and when one wants to explore the degree of consensus on a given topic (Morgan Kreuger 1993). Focus groups can be used at the preliminary or exploratory stages of a study (Kreuger 1988); during a study, perhaps to to digital - contine the order 214969224 college evaluate or develop a particular programme of activities (Race et al 1994); or after a programme has been completed, to assess its impact or to generate further avenues of research. Brand Audit Essay. They can be used either as a method in their own right or as a complement to other methods, especially for Analoge to digital - contine with the order 214969224 writing, triangulation (Morgan 1988) and validity checking. Focus groups can help to explore or generate hypotheses (Powell Single 1996) and audit assignment develop questions or concepts for questionnaires and interview guides (Hoppe et al 1995; Lankshear 1993). They are however limited in need help terms of their ability to generalise findings to a whole population, mainly because of the small numbers of people participating and the likelihood that the participants will not be a representative sample.

Examples of research in which focus groups have been employed include developing HIV education in Zimbabwe (Munodawafa et al 1995), understanding how media messages are processed (Kitzinger 1994 1995), exploring people#146;s fear of woodlands (Burgess 1996) and distance interviewing of family doctors (White Thomson 1995). Kitzinger (1994, 1995) argues that interaction is the crucial feature of focus groups because the interaction between participants highlights their view of the world, the language they use about an issue and their values and beliefs about a situation. Interaction also enables participants to ask questions of each other, as well as to re-evaluate and reconsider their own understandings of their specific experiences. Another benefit is that focus groups elicit information in a way which allows researchers to Brand find out why an issue is salient, as well as what is salient about it (Morgan 1988). Help Verbs. As a result, the Brand assignment gap between what people say and personal marketing what they do can be better understood (Lankshear 1993). If multiple understandings and meanings are revealed by participants, multiple explanations of their behaviour and Brand audit assignment Essay attitudes will be more readily articulated. The benefits to participants of focus group research should not be underestimated.

The opportunity to be involved in decision making processes (Race et al 1994), to be valued as experts, and to be given the chance to work collaboratively with researchers (Goss Leinbach 1996) can be empowering for many participants. If a group works well, trust develops and the group may explore solutions to a particular problem as a unit (Kitzinger 1995), rather than as individuals. Analoge To Digital - Contine With The Order 214969224 College Paper Writing. Not everyone will experience these benefits, as focus groups can also be intimidating at times, especially for inarticulate or shy members. Hence focus groups are not empowering for audit assignment Essay, all participants and other methods may offer more opportunities for participants. However if participants are actively involved in something which they feel will make a difference, and focus group research is me do my essay implementing personal in your life often of an applied nature, empowerment can realistically be achieved. Although focus group research has many advantages, as with all research methods there are limitations.

Some can be overcome by careful planning and Brand Essay moderating, but others are unavoidable and peculiar to this approach. The researcher, or moderator, for example, has less control over the data produced (Morgan 1988) than in either quantitative studies or one-to-one interviewing. The moderator has to allow participants to talk to each other, ask questions and express doubts and opinions, while having very little control over the interaction other than generally keeping participants focused on the topic. By its nature focus group research is open ended and cannot be entirely predetermined. It should not be assumed that the individuals in a focus group are expressing their own definitive individual view. They are speaking in a specific context, within a specific culture, and so sometimes it may be difficult for college writing helper, the researcher to clearly identify an audit individual message. This too is a potential limitation of buy research online settlers, focus groups.

On a practical note, focus groups can be difficult to assemble. It may not be easy to get a representative sample and focus groups may discourage certain people from participating, for audit, example those who are not very articulate or confident, and those who have communication problems or special needs. The method of focus group discussion may also discourage some people from trusting others with sensitive or personal information. In such cases personal interviews or the use of workbooks alongside focus groups may be a more suitable approach. Finally, focus groups are not fully confidential or anonymous, because the help me do implementing marketing in your material is shared with the others in the group. The practical organisation of focus groups. Organising focus group interviews usually requires more planning than other types of interviewing as getting people to group gatherings can be difficult and setting up appropriate venues with adequate recording facilities requires a lot of audit Essay, time.

It is college writing ninth edition answers not always easy to identify the most appropriate participants for a focus group. If a group is too heterogeneous, whether in assignment Essay terms of gender or class, or in cpm homework help terms of Brand assignment, professional and #145;lay#146; perspectives, the differences between participants can make a considerable impact on their contributions. Alternatively, if a group is homogenous with regard to specific characteristics, diverse opinions and experiences may not be revealed. Participants need to feel comfortable with each other. Meeting with others whom they think of as possessing similar characteristics or levels of understanding about a given topic, will be more appealing than meeting with those who are perceived to be different (Morgan 1988). Once the types of college writing ninth edition, participant have been decided, locating them is the next challenge. Recruitment of Brand assignment, participants can be time consuming, especially if the topic under consideration has no immediate benefits or attractions to participants. It is likely that people with specific interests will have to be recruited by word of mouth (Burgess 1996), through the use of buy research online settlers, key informants, by advertising or poster campaigns (Holbrook Jackson 1996), or through existing social networks.

Incentives, whether expenses, gift vouchers or presents, will usually need to be offered. Once a meeting has been arranged, the role of Brand assignment, moderator or group facilitator becomes critical, especially in terms of providing clear explanations of the purpose of the list group, helping people feel at ease, and facilitating interaction between group members. During the meeting moderators will need to promote debate, perhaps by asking open questions. They may also need to challenge participants, especially to draw out people#146;s differences, and tease out a diverse range of meanings on Brand assignment Essay, the topic under discussion. Sometimes moderators will need to probe for details, or move things forward when the conversation is drifting or has reached a minor conclusion. Moderators also have to keep the session focused and so sometimes they may deliberately have to steer the conversation back on course. Cpm Homework Help Verbs List. Moderators also have to ensure everyone participates and gets a chance to speak. Essay. At the edition same time moderators are encouraged not to show too much approval (Kreuger 1988), so as to avoid favouring particular participants.

They must avoid giving personal opinions so as not to influence participants towards any particular position or opinion. The role of the moderator is a demanding and challenging one, and Brand moderators will need to possess good interpersonal skills and personal qualities, being good listeners, non-judgmental and adaptable. These qualities will promote the help my essay marketing life participants#146; trust in the moderator and increase the likelihood of Brand audit, open, interactive dialogue. Finally, the need help essay analysis of before the rain degree of control and direction imposed by moderators will depend upon the goals of the audit assignment Essay research as well as on their preferred style. If two or more moderators are involved in the facilitation of cpm homework help verbs list, a focus group, agreement needs to Brand be reached as to how much input or direction each will give. It is recommended that one moderator facilitates and the other takes notes and essay services writing massachusetts checks the Brand assignment recording equipment during the my essay in your meeting. There also needs to be consistency across focus groups, so careful preparation with regard to role and Brand Essay responsibilities is required. Ethical considerations for focus groups are the same as for to digital - contine with 214969224, most other methods of social research (Homan 1991). For example, when selecting and involving participants, researchers must ensure that full information about the purpose and uses of participants#146; contributions is given.

Being honest and keeping participants informed about the expectations of the group and topic, and not pressurising participants to speak is good practice. Assignment. A particular ethical issue to consider in essay of before the rain the case of focus groups is the handling of sensitive material and confidentiality given that there will always be more than one participant in the group. Brand Assignment Essay. At the outset moderators will need to clarify that each participant#146;s contributions will be shared with the others in the group as well as with the moderator. Participants need to be encouraged to keep confidential what they hear during the meeting and researchers have the responsibility to anonymise data from the group. This article has outlined the main features of focus group research, paying particular attention to the benefits of interaction and group dynamics which only this method can offer. Practical considerations and the time it takes to conduct focus group research may discourage many from attempting to collect data using this method. Nevertheless those who participate in cpm homework verbs list this kind of research often find the experience rewarding.

The process of Brand assignment, research can be more collaborative than other forms of study, and so focus group research can be an empowering process for participants, and an exciting challenge for top custom writing, social researchers wanting to gain a different perspective on assignment, their field of help me do marketing in your life, interest. Burgess J. (1996) #145;Focusing on fear#146;, Area 28 (2): 130-36. Flores J.G. and Brand assignment Essay Alonso C.G. (1995) #145;Using focus groups in educational research#146;, Evaluation Review 19 (1): 84-101. Goss J.D., Leinbach T.R. (1996) #145;Focus groups as alternative research practice#146;, Area 28 (2): 115-23. Holbrook B. and online the first Jackson P. (1996) #145;Shopping around: focus group research in Brand assignment North London#146;, Area 28 (2): 136-42. Homan R (1991) Ethics in Social Research . Harlow: Longman.

Hoppe M.J., Wells E.A., Morrison D.M., Gilmore M.R., Wilsdon A. (1995) #145;Using focus groups to discuss sensitive topics with children#146;, Evaluation Review 19 (1): 102-14. Kitzinger J. (1994) #145;The methodology of help do my essay, focus groups: the importance of interaction between research participants#146;, Sociology of Health 16 (1): 103-21. Kitzinger J. (1995) #145;Introducing focus groups#146;, British Medical Journal 311: 299-302. Kreuger R.A. (1988) Focus groups: a practical guide for applied research . London: Sage. Lankshear A.J. (1993) #145;The use of Brand Essay, focus groups in a study of attitudes to paper online the first settlers student nurse assessment#146;, Journal of Advanced Nursing 18: 1986-89. MacIntosh J. Audit Essay. (1981) #145;Focus groups in distance nursing education#146;, Journal of Advanced Nursing 18: 1981-85. Munodawafa D., Gwede C., Mubayira C. Need Help Do My Essay Analysis. (1995) #145;Using focus groups to develop HIV education among adolescent females in Zimbabwe#146;, Health Promotion 10 (2): 85-92. Merton R.K., Kendall P.L. Essay. (1946) #145;The Focused Interview#146;, American Journal of Sociology 51: 541-557. Morgan D.L. (1988) Focus groups as qualitative research . London: Sage. Morgan D.L. (1997, 2nd Edition) Focus groups as qualitative research . London: Sage. Morgan D.L. and Spanish M.T. Analoge To Digital With College Paper. (1984) #145;Focus groups: a new tool for qualitative research#146;, Qualitative Sociology 7: 253-70.

Morgan D.L. and Kreuger R.A. (1993) #145;When to use focus groups and why#146; in Morgan D.L. (Ed.) Successful Focus Groups . London: Sage. Powell R.A. and Single H.M. (1996) #145;Focus groups#146;, International Journal of Quality in Health Care 8 (5): 499-504.. Powell R.A., Single H.M., Lloyd K.R. (1996) #145;Focus groups in mental health research: enhancing the validity of user and provider questionnaires#146;, International Journal of Social Psychology 42 (3): 193-206. Race K.E., Hotch D.F., Parker T. (1994) #145;Rehabilitation program evaluation: use of focus groups to empower clients#146;, Evaluation Review 18 (6): 730-40. Smith J.A., Scammon D.L., Beck S.L. Brand Essay. (1995) #145;Using patient focus groups for essay spider, new patient services#146;, Joint Commission Journal on Quality Improvement 21 (1): 22-31. Stewart D.W. and Shamdasani P.N. (1992) Focus groups: theory and practice . London: Sage. White G.E. and Thomson A.N. (1995) #145;Anonymized focus groups as a research tool for health professionals#146;, Qualitative Health Research 5 (2): 256-61. Social Research Update is published by:

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